Many parents with respiratory diseases are concerned about the genetic predisposition of children to these diseases. Many do not know for sure whether asthma is inherited or not. Geneticists assume that there is a high chance of getting sick if a parent suffers from chronic airway inflammation.
The good news is that it is really possible to fight the symptoms of the disease. But you need to be careful so that, for example, a common allergy does not develop into asthma. If there is an allergic or asthmatic person in the family, parents should be on their guard and take care of the health of their children.
Factors and causes of the development of bronchial asthma
Asthma is considered a multifactorial disease. This means that many external and internal factors are involved in its development. And in this case, heredity fades into the background.
You can even say that asthma is not inherited. With the development of medical science, new sources are identified that affect the development of the disease. Among them, it is worth highlighting two main groups:
- External factors of direct influence.
- Physiological state of the body.
The first group is exogenous factors. These include provocateurs of an allergic reaction. It:
- mold fungi, various products, plant pollen, animal hair;
- bacteria and viruses;
- harmful work in hazardous industries, frequent contact with irritating substances;
- ecological situation;
- smoking cigarettes;
- infectious diseases;
- improper nutrition.
The second group is endogenous factors:
- obesity of varying severity;
- bronchitis, which occurs more often than several times a year;
- the presence of certain diseases in the mother or father;
- gender . If the transmission of the disease occurs at the genetic level, then most often from the mother.
Features of inheritance
It should be clarified that the transmission of a predisposition to asthma from women provokes a more severe course of the disease. If the gene is passed on by a man, then the symptoms will not be as bright, and the asthma itself is much easier.
Of course, if the parents suffer from bronchial asthma, then the risk of its occurrence in the heirs is great. But this is not 100%, because it is impossible to predict genetics. It is worth noting that excessive hygiene affects the development of respiratory diseases.
This often happens while the child is small. Doctors say that if you wash your hands many times a day, especially with antibacterial soap, your natural microflora will be disrupted. Immunity will simply have nothing to fight with. For it to work well, pathogenic bacteria are also needed to activate it.
With excessive hygiene, the immune system will begin to react to any substances entering the body and will give a reaction in the form of allergies. Many people know that those children who are given more independence are less susceptible to bronchial diseases.
On the contrary, if you follow all the precautions, constantly washing your hands, you can get sick. Everything is good in moderation, hygiene is worth worrying about, but raising a child in sterile conditions is wrong.
Genetic reasons for the development of bronchial asthma
It should be noted right away that asthma itself is not inherited. But the predisposition to it goes. If a parent is worried about whether bronchial asthma is inherited from parents, then we can say that not only the gene factor affects the disease. For a child to show asthmatic symptoms, several conditions must converge:
- predisposition at the genetic level;
- the presence of exogenous factors that affect the development of bronchial asthma.
To understand how the genes of parents affect the occurrence of the disease in children, geneticists constantly conduct research and also keep statistics.
- In 10% of cases, children of absolutely healthy parents, without signs of bronchial asthma, can get sick with it.
- When a mother or father suffers from a disease, the disease can develop in 20% of cases. A 35% chance is observed when both parents are ill.
- The situation is complicated if the parents have allergic manifestations, and besides, one of them is asthmatic. As many as 42% say that a child can inherit the disease.
- When both parents have asthma, 75 out of 100 children may develop asthma. The disease manifests itself before the seven-year-old child.
Scientists have found which genes are responsible for the predisposition to the development of bronchial asthma. There are more than 50 of them. They are located in the fifth and eleventh chromosomes. The job of these genes is to make specific antibodies.
Why asthma is difficult to predict
The disease is difficult to identify:
- Bronchial asthma can develop at different ages. It is more likely that it will manifest itself in children under seven years of age. It also occurs in adults who have not responded to the manifestations of allergies, and it has developed into asthma. You can get sick in old age, if there is a predisposition.
- The disease occurs against the background of internal factors. It can be an infectious disease, a cold, being overweight, or using medications.
- Since the reactions of patients are individual, the symptoms can only be classified approximately. Attacks in patients of different age groups are different, the body’s response to the drugs used is also different.
It should be noted that the manifestations of asthmatic disease with a hereditary predisposition can be prevented. To do this, you need to be careful even during the intrauterine development of the child, and after his birth, take preventive measures.
Can a mother transmit asthma to her child?
Pregnancy is a very crucial time. Each stage is important for the development of the unborn child. For example, during embryonic development, the beginnings of future immunity are laid.
The ability to fight various kinds of viruses, microbes, is in direct proportion to which genes were involved in this. Since the child’s DNA contains the genes of the father and mother, he will inherit problems equally.
Asthma can be inherited even if one of the parents is sick. These genes will already be in the DNA. The development of the disease depends on how many genes passed from the carrier will take place in the genetic structure of the embryo. Accordingly, the larger the amount, the greater the predisposition.
Parents, of course, want to know if the newborn has inherited a predisposition to asthma. If it is, then the child may have a choking attack. Its appearance can be triggered by the following factors:
- transfer from breast milk to dry mixture;
- beginning of complementary feeding;
- dust in the room;
It happens that asthma does not manifest itself in any way, up to the old age of a person. This suggests that although he had a high probability of getting sick, his immunity was very high. Therefore, the disease did not manifest itself for a long time. Over time, the protective function of the immune system weakens, and the person is faced with the first asthma attack.
In general, it can be said that, like the father, the mother can transmit a predisposition to respiratory disease. But at the same time, the development of the disease can be suspended if preventive measures are followed.
Is asthma inherited from father
Parents-to-be often ask themselves whether asthma can be inherited from their father. Medicine has established that if the disease goes along the female line, then the asthma in the child will be more difficult.
Geneticists have shown that the father can also transmit a predisposition to bronchial asthma. Therefore, with a certain degree of probability, it can be argued that if the future father is sick, then the child is at risk. In about 10% of cases, the father is to blame for the development of the disease.
The features of the manifestation of the disease are as follows:
- male children get sick more often, but the symptoms of bronchial asthma are not very pronounced;
- girls may not get sick as often, but the asthma will be difficult.
If the predisposition to bronchial asthma is transmitted from the mother, then the risk of complications automatically increases. The main symptoms of this condition are:
- frequent bouts of shortness of breath;
- persistent cough;
- increased sweating;
- lack of oxygen.
Tellingly, if a dad suffers from asthma, then there is a high probability that the child will also get sick. But the father cannot infect an already born child. When the father has bronchial asthma, but the mother does not have it, this combination generates a high degree of resistance.
Predisposition to atopy and the risk of developing asthma
Doctors have found that a predisposition to asthma is transmitted, and not the disease itself. Therefore, asthma is the result of hereditary and external factors.
When one of the parents is sick, the risk of passing on the genes of the disease to the child is very high. Although the occurrence of bronchial asthma is influenced by heredity, the disease can be corrected if preventive measures are taken.
The very first thing that parents of a child can do is to ask the next of kin about the presence of allergic manifestations. There is a direct link between bronchial asthma and common allergies. Due to a reaction to pollen, the father gets a runny nose.
In the future, his child may develop eczema. If you do not engage in its treatment, then there is a high probability of developing bronchial asthma against the background of a skin disease. This is how a simple allergic reaction to flower dust triggers the genetic mechanism for developing respiratory disease.
Asthma does not always show up in childhood. You can safely live more than half of your life, and then face this ailment. This is explained by the fact that the person had high immunity, and external factors had no effect on him.
How heredity affects pregnancy
Some mothers are prone to asthma attacks during pregnancy. If they pass quickly and can be stopped, then there is no danger to the child. Everything will be all right with him, he will be born on time, with a low risk of developing pathologies.
But asthma is not always easy. If the attacks are severe, the condition will affect the child. There is a high risk of premature birth, the baby may be born with insufficient weight. Doctors warn that such children need to be monitored more closely. Due to the fact that the airways are not adequately protected, the risk of developing diseases is higher.
The development of asthmatic manifestations can be really avoided if:
- breastfeed your baby for at least one year;
- correctly introduce complementary foods;
- observe sleep and nutrition;
- exclude external factors that provoke the disease (household dust, pollen, wool).
Can asthma be avoided with a genetic predisposition?
In order for the disease not to develop, preventive measures should be taken. It is much easier than treating bronchial asthma. It is important for parents to deal with the elimination of exogenous causes, because endogenous causes cannot be influenced in any way.
If a woman smoked before, then during pregnancy, cigarettes should disappear from her life. Smoking is one of the aggravating factors that affects the development of respiratory tract disease. Having given birth to a child, there is no need to return to a bad habit, because breastfeeding is ahead.
It can not be abandoned in any case. With mother’s milk, the child receives antibodies that contribute to the development of immunity. Moreover, breastfeeding is a good preventive measure.
The influence of external factors on the development of the disease should not be underestimated, because, although asthma is transmitted at the gene level, exogenous factors provoke its development.
There are three types of factors conditionally:
- household allergens;
- environmental impact;
- other factors.
To eliminate provocateurs of the first type, the following recommendations must be observed:
- During the day, you should ventilate the rooms several times, do wet cleaning.
- Poison insects, primarily cockroaches.
- Deal with mold.
- Parents need to give up cigarettes.
- Timely change and clean filters in air conditioners.
- Avoid contact with pollen.
- Avoid physical fatigue during the cold season.
- Use medications containing aspirin with caution.
- Get an annual flu vaccine.
- Treat concomitant diseases in time.
- Monitor your weight.
- Avoid stress.
What to do if the problem already exists
If bronchial asthma has already manifested itself, the task of the parents is to monitor the intensity of the attacks. Acute attacks should not be allowed to occur frequently. When the predisposition to the disease is transmitted from the mother, asthma attacks occur more often. To reduce their manifestation, you should follow the rules of prevention:
- Ideally, the whole family should adhere to the principles of good nutrition. Using the example of parents, the child should see that the absence of bad habits is the norm.
- You need to exercise regularly, as well as master breathing exercises.
- Take medications only on the recommendation of a doctor. Self-medication can adversely affect the patient’s condition.
- You should not purchase products that contain preservatives.
- Infections make the disease worse and must be treated quickly.
- A physical examination should be done every six months or a year.
- If possible, refuse pets.
- After a viral illness, the child should be protected from communication with other children and adults. This is a temporary measure until immunity is restored.
- It is useful to temper with cold water. This procedure has a beneficial effect on the immune system.
- It is necessary to exclude smoked meats, soda, citrus fruits, overly spicy dishes from the child’s diet.
Bronchial asthma is an inherited disease of the respiratory tract. More precisely, a predisposition to it is transmitted.
Scientists have identified the genes that are responsible for this. If the carrier of the gene is a woman, then the child’s bronchial asthma can be quite difficult. More severe attacks are recorded in girls, and they occur more often in boys.
If both parents are asthmatic, then they need to closely monitor the development of their child. His illness can manifest itself up to seven years.
To make life easier for the child, parents should take preventive measures. It is much easier to prevent the development of a disease than to cure it.