Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia. It is necessary to undergo an adequate course of treatment, and not engage in therapy on your own, since the disease causes serious complications.
The main causes of the disease
Bacterial pneumonia is characterized by inflammation in the tissues of the lungs, the causes of which lie in the development of pathogenic microorganisms. Along with the viral one, this type of ailment is the most common among other forms of pneumonia, and it is diagnosed in about 1 in 100 people.
Newborns and the elderly are especially vulnerable , as their immunity is not strong enough to cope with microbial exposure.
The main causative agents of pneumonia are:
- Pneumococci. These bacteria infect patients most often. They begin to act with a decrease in immunity, entering the lungs from the nasopharynx. Pneumococci are also sometimes transmitted through blood.
- Staphylococci. They usually affect children, patients with a set of chronic pathologies and drug addicts who use one needle at all. It should be noted that 1 in 4 people are carriers of this microbe, which is located in the pharynx, intestines or on the skin.
- Haemophilus influenzae. Does not cause harm to the wearer until a serious decline in his defenses. It is located on the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract: in the nose, mouth and throat.
- Klebsiella. She, too, is waiting for the moment when human health deteriorates. It is found in the digestive organs, in the mouth and on the skin.
The main cause of pneumonia is the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the lungs and their development in the paired organ. However, there are a number of factors that trigger the disease:
- Smoking. People who smoke are often more susceptible to developing any form of pneumonia than non-smokers, but passive inhalation of harmful substances also significantly increases the risk of diagnosis. This is especially dangerous for children, in whose presence adults smoke .
- Chronic pathologies of the lungs, bronchi and other organs of the respiratory system.
- Weakened immunity. This factor can cause many diseases, since the body is unable to fight infections and inflammations.
- Alcohol. Alcohol abuse leads to poor health: the harmful effect spreads to all organs, and the lungs also suffer from prolonged binge drinking.
- Stress, mental fatigue. The influence of the psyche on the human condition is not fully understood, but one thing is clear: the constant depression of the nervous system leads to physical problems.
- Bad ecology. Dirty air cities increases the risk of symptoms of respiratory diseases. Also, a person working in hazardous work is more susceptible to being diagnosed with pneumonia.
In addition, congenital pathologies, complications after surgery, childhood and old age are also factors that provoke inflammation.
It is difficult to accurately determine the list of signs of bacterial pneumonia, since the clinical picture is determined by the specific pathogen and characteristics of the patient. At the same time, the incubation period is different for all people, since it also depends on the state of health and the strain of the bacterium. Nevertheless, the disease has general symptoms. Firstly, it is a wet cough, along with which greenish or rusty phlegm is separated. The shade of mucus changes depending on the onset of a purulent process or the ingress of blood into the sputum. Secondly, during the period of exacerbation, the patient’s temperature rises . Thirdly, the patient feels severe weakness, headache, chest and muscle pain, his joints ache, which is the result of constant poor health. Respiratory, cardiac, and renal failure is also common.
First, the patient comes for an initial examination so that the doctor compiles a general clinical picture of the disease. He needs to find out what concomitant diseases are, whether the patient is taking medications and what kind of lifestyle he leads. After comparing the picture with the symptoms of bacterial pneumonia, the doctor makes an assumption.
Further, a number of laboratory tests are assigned. The patient donates blood and urine for biochemical composition, and a little sputum is also taken. It is necessary to determine the causative agent of pneumonia and its resistance to the active substances of drugs. Without this, it is impossible to find an effective antibiotic that will give a result.
X-rays are prescribed for diseases of the respiratory system. It allows you to assess the spread of inflammation and the condition of the lungs. If there is no exact diagnosis and the case is rather complicated, the doctor gives a referral for spirography, blood culture for sterility, analysis of pleural effusion, CT and MRI of the lungs.
Treatment for bacterial pneumonia
The main medication for treating inflammation caused by bacteria is antibiotics. Based on the diagnosis, the doctor makes a choice between macrolides, aminopenicillins and cephalosporins. They are prescribed even with an unspecified diagnosis, since delay costs life.
If the disease proceeds without complications and the patient feels well, then he is prescribed pills and intramuscular injections. In severe pneumonia, the second method is usually prescribed, since the substances are delivered faster to the site of inflammation.
In order for the patient to feel relief, he needs to drink a course of immunomodulating and detoxifying agents. He should drink more clean water to prevent dehydration and help his body fight bacteria.
Anti-inflammatory drugs are needed to reduce the focus of inflammation: Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen are most often prescribed. To relieve pain, the patient is prescribed analgesics.
Mucolytics are given to help the phlegm pass out of the respiratory tract. You can use traditional medicine: milk with honey, compresses with animal fat, mustard plasters. They are allowed to be done at home, but after the approval of a doctor.
Respiratory care begins with a healthy lifestyle. It is necessary to quit smoking and not abuse alcoholic beverages, so as not to undermine the immune system. It is important to note that passive smoke inhalation also worsens lung health, so avoid smoking areas.
It is quite easy to catch an infection from an infectious person, so you do not need to be in close contact with him during treatment. This is important in the absence of a vaccine against chickenpox, measles, influenza and similar diseases, since bacterial pneumonia can also appear on the background of infection .
You need to follow the rules of hygiene and wash your hands before eating. Many bacteria that cause pneumonia are found on the skin and mucous membranes of the nasopharynx. Cover your nose with a handkerchief when sneezing or coughing.
Bacterial pneumonia can take a serious hit on the health of an adult or child, making them vulnerable to complications. The disease is treated immediately after diagnosis, and therapy should be carried out under medical supervision. Self-medication of pneumonia is not encouraged, since the patient does not know the intricacies of the disease.