Non-allergic asthma is a disease associated with an inflammatory process in the bronchi. It is accompanied by a sudden paroxysmal cough and spasm and occurs without contact with the allergen.
The diagnosis of the disease is important, which makes it possible to differentiate this form of asthma from allergic. Asthma treatment is prescribed by a physician after a thorough examination of the patient.
What is non-allergic asthma
The non-allergic form of bronchial asthma is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation of the bronchi. With asthma, the entire respiratory system suffers. Any illness of the respiratory tract can lead to the development of complications in the form of non-allergic asthma.
Unlike the allergic form, this type of disease is not hereditary and most often develops in people over 50 years old. If untreated, the disease progresses, which leads to disruption of the respiratory system.
The mechanism of development and causes of non-allergic bronchial asthma
The pathogenesis of non-allergic bronchial asthma is not fully understood. It occurs when the lower airways become inflamed. The reaction to inflammation is the increased reactivity of the bronchi, that is, their response to any stimulus. If the condition of the bronchi is normal, the reaction will be adequate. With inflammation, even a slight irritation causes bronchospasm.
The lumen of the bronchi narrows, which causes oxygen starvation of the body. Breathing is impaired, coughing and shortness of breath appear. Violation of the patency of the bronchi occurs due to the fact that the muscles of the organ contract, the amount of thick mucus secreted increases and the mucous membrane of the bronchi swells.
Non-allergic bronchial asthma is not associated with any allergen. Its development occurs under the influence of various factors related to the patient’s lifestyle, living conditions, dietary habits. Among the causes of the disease may be such phenomena as:
- Inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system (bronchitis, sinusitis, sinusitis) of a chronic nature.
- Hormonal and metabolic disorders (especially in women).
- Effects of cigarette smoke (with active and passive inhalation). The work of the ciliated epithelium is disrupted, the cilia of which cease to remove sputum and settled particles of contamination.
- Inhalation of contaminated air for a long time. More often this is due to the place of residence or work of the person. Polluted air enters the respiratory tract, and pollution settles on the bronchial mucosa, which contributes to the development of the inflammatory process.
- Congenital anomalies of the respiratory organs.
An attack can develop due to external reasons: physical overload, constant stressful situations, hypothermia due to cold weather with strong winds, overeating, inhalation of unpleasant odors.
The inability to establish the root cause of seizures leads to difficulty in prescribing the necessary therapeutic measures. If in the allergic form of asthma the main goal is to eliminate the allergen, then the non-allergic form requires a more detailed diagnosis and an integrated approach to treatment.
A feature of the non-allergic form of bronchial asthma is that it is more complicated than other forms of the disease. This is a chronic disease, therefore, there are periods of seizures and remissions when the patient is not worried about the symptoms .
The characteristic signs of non-allergic asthma are coughing and choking, which are accompanied by a number of additional manifestations.
With an exacerbation, asthma makes itself felt by such main symptoms as:
- shortness of breath with difficult exhalation;
- suffocation, accompanied by wheezing;
- paroxysmal dry cough;
- the release of sputum of a viscous consistency;
- a feeling of congestion in the chest;
The progression of the disease leads to dysfunction of other organ systems, which manifests itself in the following conditions:
- malaise and general weakness of the body;
- headache and dizziness;
- the development of heart failure, expressed by cyanosis of the skin;
- deformation of the shape of the nails and phalanges of the fingers;
- breathing problems due to damage to the lungs.
In the absence of treatment, the situation is aggravated. The course of the disease is complicated by frequent periods of exacerbation, when the cough occurs suddenly and is accompanied by severe attacks of suffocation. Under certain circumstances, this can lead to respiratory arrest. It is impossible to predict how the next attack will end.
Diagnosis of the disease
If you suspect a bronchial disease, you should consult a doctor for advice. After examination by a specialist, the patient is assigned a thorough examination. To exclude the allergic nature of asthma, skin tests for allergens are done. X-ray examination of the lungs, ECG, sputum and blood tests are mandatory.
Based on the results of a clinical examination, the doctor makes a diagnosis and prescribes treatment.
Treatment of non-allergic forms of bronchial asthma is aimed at reducing the frequency of attacks of coughing and choking. After the diagnosis is made, it is assigned individually, taking into account the clinical picture of the disease.
In the treatment of bronchial asthma, a stepwise approach is used, two groups of drugs are used:
- Long-acting aerosol medications that require daily use.
- Inhalers containing homones are used for exacerbation. These drugs dilate the bronchi.
Modern pharmaceuticals offer a wide range of combined action products.
Respiratory gymnastics is an obligatory element of treatment.
Specially designed breathing exercises will help restore breathing and reduce the number of attacks.
If an attack occurs, the patient must be given first aid. For this purpose, inhalation with a nebulizer is used. If this procedure is ineffective, aminophylline is administered intravenously. If relief does not come, urgent hospitalization is required.
General advice for asthma patients
With bronchial asthma, not only medical treatment is required, but also the observance of certain rules, which should become not just recommendations, but a way of life. To avoid seizures and achieve a stable remission, the patient needs:
- timely treatment of infectious diseases;
- perform special breathing exercises;
- increase the frequency of ventilation of the dwelling;
- walk more often in the fresh air;
- take medicines as prescribed by a doctor (many drugs are contraindicated for asthmatics, as they can provoke an attack);
- avoid stress and emotional overload;
- give up heavy physical activity, choosing feasible types of activity (swimming, walking);
- choose a place of work that is not related to the use of chemicals;
- adhere to the rules of a balanced diet with the obligatory use of alkaline sodium mineral water;
- limit drinking and quit smoking.
Changing the usual way of life is a necessary measure aimed at improving the patient’s condition and reducing the number of attacks of choking and coughing.
Bronchial non-allergic asthma is a complex disease that requires daily monitoring by the patient. Do not self-medicate. Taking any medications must be agreed with your doctor. Many medicines can be hazardous to the health of asthmatics.
Compliance with the recommendations, taking medications according to the indicated scheme, performing breathing exercises will reduce the number of attacks and improve the quality of life.