Bronchial asthma is a common disease of the lower respiratory tract with various forms of manifestations. Mixed asthma is one of them, formed as a result of the combined influence of internal and external factors on the human body. The disease affects children over 5 years old, less often it occurs in adults.
What is a mixed type of asthma, why it occurs, how to recognize it and what to do when an illness occurs, we will consider further.
Features of mixed bronchial asthma
The mixed form of bronchial asthma is a manifestation of a chronic inflammatory process in the respiratory system, proceeds in a moderate and severe form. It occurs due to increased sensitivity of the bronchi, which leads to a narrowing of the bronchial lumen under the influence of various stimuli. This condition is caused by contraction of the smooth muscles of the bronchi, edema of the mucous membrane and the accumulation of excess mucus on its walls.
This pathology is formed under the influence of factors of the exogenous (allergic) and endogenous (non-allergic) type. If the disease combines both forms, it means that it has a mixed origin.
In mixed asthma, there is a direct relationship not only with external stimuli (entering the body through the respiratory tract), but also with latent infectious diseases (respiratory, teeth, stomach, intestines and other internal organs).
The disease is distinguished by a recurrent course with multiple exacerbations and intractable attacks.
Classification of bronchial asthma
Mixed bronchial asthma is classified according to the following criteria: by the severity of the course, the form of the disease, and the controllability of the process.
- The severity of the disease.
Features of the flow:
- Mild – characterized by minor exacerbations, which are easily eliminated with the help of bronchodilators .
- The moderate severity of the mixed form of bronchial asthma leads to a decrease in a person’s physical activity, disturbances in sleep patterns. With it, the occurrence of more severe and prolonged exacerbations (several per week), sometimes accompanied by attacks of suffocation, is noted. To reduce the negative effects of asthma, daily intake of bronchodilator drugs is necessary .
- Severe degree is the most dangerous. It is accompanied by partial or complete limitation of physical activity, difficulty speaking, panic, general weakness, and frequent attacks. Attacks during this period can turn into asthmatic status, which poses a serious threat to the patient’s life.
Depending on the severity of the course, the disease can be episodic in nature (develop gradually with rare attacks) or be constant and proceed in a mild, moderate or severe form.
- Disease control.
According to the controllability of the process, asthma is:
- controlled – with the absence of negative manifestations and restrictions for any type of activity;
- partially controlled – clinical signs appear with a moderate number of exacerbations;
- uncontrolled – there are multiple symptoms, a significant number of exacerbations, the occurrence of asthmatic attacks.
To establish control over the disease, the patient needs to learn how to independently use the peak flow meter (to determine the maximum expiratory flow rate). This will help determine the onset of an exacerbation, take the prescribed medications in a timely manner and reduce the risk of asthmatic attacks.
Causes of the disease
The genesis of mixed bronchial asthma is based on various mechanisms that provoke the disease.
This pathology is the result of the simultaneous influence of allergic and non-allergic causes.
Exposure to exogenous factors leads to the appearance of an allergic reaction to certain substances perceived by the body as foreign.
Asthma provocateurs are allergens that enter the respiratory tract from the external environment:
- pet wool and down;
- dry food;
- household products for cleaning, laundry and dishwashing;
- dust mites;
- pollen from flowering plants;
- fungal spores;
- insect bites;
- sharp odors;
- smoking and inhalation of tobacco smoke;
- allergenic foods.
Endogenous (internal) causes are the results of an unstable physiological state of a person:
- complication of viral infections;
- endocrine disorders;
- chronic diseases of internal organs;
- physical and emotional overload;
- hypothermia of the body;
- climatic conditions;
- side effects from taking medications.
Since bronchial asthma of a mixed form develops under the influence of allergens and infection, it refers to a complicated form of the disease and needs a special approach.
Mixed Asthma Symptoms
For mixed asthma, periods of exacerbation, abatement of inflammatory processes and remission are characteristic.
The disease is accompanied by certain clinical signs:
- labored breathing;
- the occurrence of choking;
- the appearance of an itchy rash;
- violation of sputum excretion;
- a feeling of squeezing in the chest;
- wheezing wheezing on exhalation;
- the occurrence of a cough (especially at night);
- deterioration in general well-being;
- the appearance of low-grade fever;
- allergic manifestations.
The main manifestation of bronchial asthma of mixed origin is prolonged asthma attacks. During an asthmatic attack, there is a narrowing of the bronchi, a cough and impaired respiratory function.
This condition can last for several minutes or hours and can be controlled with an inhaler. If the drug does not work and the attack does not stop, the patient must be hospitalized.
Diagnostic measures are the main method for detecting mixed bronchial asthma.
- examination and questioning of the patient;
- laboratory study of blood and mucus analyzes;
- the use of spirometry to analyze the functional indicators of the lungs and bronchi;
- conducting provocative tests to identify the allergen;
- X-ray examinations to exclude possible complications;
- bronchoscopic examination of the lungs.
With the help of a thorough diagnosis, the doctor determines the severity of the course of the disease and selects the appropriate treatment.
Treatment of mixed bronchial asthma
The priority tasks in the fight against bronchial asthma of mixed genesis are:
- decrease in the severity of clinical signs;
- elimination of the influence of triggers;
- prevention of exacerbations;
- assessment of respiratory function indicators;
- increasing the patient’s activity and improving his condition;
- elimination of side effects from taking medications;
- teaching asthmatics to measure expiratory flow rate:
- controlling the course of the disease.
A feature of the course of mixed asthma is a combination of allergic and non-allergic manifestations, which implies the use of complex treatment. It includes taking medications of systemic and symptomatic action.
Systemic treatment is carried out over a long period of time (sometimes throughout life). It provides long-term relief by preventing flare-ups and helping control the condition.
Basic therapy includes taking the following medications:
- corticosteroid drugs in tablets or injections – used to dilute sputum and discharge it with moderate severity of the disease, as well as with prolonged bronchospasm and status asthmaticus;
- long-term beta-2-agonists – help to expand the lumen of the bronchi. For moderate or severe disease, a combination of an inhaled hormone with a beta-agonist is used;
- anticholinergics – promote the expansion of the bronchi, reduce mucus production, eliminate cough and shortness of breath;
- glucocorticosteroid drugs (inhalation hormones) – relieve inflammation, which can reduce bronchial hyperactivity and eliminate bronchospasm, reduce mucosal edema. They are prescribed when the disease is severe and difficult to treat. They are used in short courses, as they have serious side effects.
Each person has individual precursors of an asthma attack, so it is important to learn how to determine the onset of this moment.
Its main symptoms are:
- a sore throat;
- paroxysmal cough;
The use of symptomatic means of rapid response – aerosols and inhalers – at the right time will help improve the patient’s condition and prevent the development of an attack.
Physiotherapy is used as an auxiliary treatment:
- amplipulse ;
The procedures can improve the functionality of the airways, reduce inflammation, normalize blood circulation, and also reduce the body’s susceptibility to allergens.
It should be remembered that all medications must be used strictly according to the doctor’s prescription.
It is not recommended to interrupt treatment on your own when general well-being improves and the symptoms of the disease disappear. This can lead to the progression of the disease and the return of all manifestations in a more severe form.
It is not possible to predict the result of treatment, since mixed asthma can provoke serious disturbances in the functioning of the respiratory system and cause complications.
However, timely started treatment and the fulfillment of all the doctor’s prescriptions can stop the development of the disease and lead to prolonged remission.
Prevention of mixed asthma
Preventive measures are an integral part of the fight against mixed form of bronchial asthma. They help prevent the progression of asthma or relieve its symptoms.
- the use of protective equipment when using household and construction chemicals;
- frequent exposure to fresh air;
- hardening and increasing the protective properties of the body;
- refusal from heavy physical exertion;
- exclusion from the diet of food that are allergens;
- carrying out daily wet cleaning of the living quarters;
- restriction or complete refusal of contact with pets;
- mastering breathing exercises;
- quitting smoking and excessive alcohol consumption;
- application of methods of self-control of the state of the disease.
Bronchial asthma cannot be completely cured . But proper treatment and regular implementation of certain rules will help establish control over the disease. This will allow the person to return to a fulfilling life.