Bronchial asthma is a disease of the respiratory system. The violation is based on bronchial hypersensitivity to external stimuli.
At risk are smokers, as well as people suffering from pulmonary pathologies.
An attack of bronchial asthma leads to suffocation, so the patient needs urgent help. During an attack, a spasm of the bronchi develops, which blocks the flow of air into the body.
A prolonged lack of oxygen leads to the development of hypoxia, heart problems and other dangerous consequences. Therefore, everyone should know what actions to take to avoid complications.
The course and symptoms of an attack of bronchial asthma
BA attack occurs due to a number of provoking factors. Most often, it begins at night or at dawn, but in the daytime it is also possible.
Sometimes the symptoms go away on their own, if it was possible to identify the irritant and isolate the patient from it. But there are also serious conditions, lasting about a day. Then help with asthma is urgently needed.
You can avoid negative consequences if you pay attention to the first signs of an exacerbation in a timely manner. In the initial stages, the patient has:
- lethargy, loss of strength;
- itching sensation in the nasal passages;
- constant sneezing;
- lack of air;
- a feeling of compression in the chest (considered the main harbinger of the development of the disease).
If nothing is done during this period, then the deterioration occurs after one or two days. When the symptoms of an attack worsen, urgent medical attention is required. The attack is accompanied by:
- profuse sweating;
- increased blood pressure;
- wheezing when inhaling and exhaling;
- increased shortness of breath;
- constant barking cough, accompanied by the separation of clear sputum;
- pain in the chest.
Sometimes at this stage, there is a blue discoloration of the skin in the area of the lips. Choking is considered the most dangerous in asthma, so first aid is aimed at stopping this symptom and restoring breathing.
It is necessary to monitor the work of the heart, as due to a sharp increase in pressure, the load on this organ increases.
Symptoms of an asthma attack gradually subside after the provision of emergency medical care.
First aid for asthmatics with an attack
The qualified help provided by a specialist contributes to the rapid alleviation of symptoms, the restoration of the patient’s breathing. However, before the ambulance arrives, you need to take action yourself.
It is possible to relieve even a severe asthma attack at home if you perform a series of actions correctly. Since the main danger in exacerbation of asthma is bronchospasm, it is important to stop it as soon as possible or at least reduce it.
Algorithm of emergency care for an attack of bronchial asthma
The development of an attack is preceded by exposure to a stimulus. This can happen suddenly, away from the hospital. In this case, all responsibility for the patient’s health rests with friends or people around him.
Even if there is no experience in providing medical care, there are a number of simple manipulations that will allow you to hold out until the doctors arrive. When urgent care is needed for bronchial asthma, the algorithm of actions will be as follows:
- Call the ambulance, describe in detail the condition of the person.
- Identify and remove (if possible) the source that provoked the attack (flowers, animals, etc.).
- Sit the patient in a comfortable position, give the opportunity to rest his hands on a hard surface.
- Unbutton buttons, remove tight clothing that squeezes the chest.
- Calm the person down to prevent a panic attack.
- Look in your pockets or bag for inhaled drugs. Often people with the disease described keep the aerosol in an accessible place.
First aid for bronchial asthma is very important, as it avoids complications and makes it easier for doctors. Therefore, you do not need to pass by, a few simple manipulations can save a person’s life. The correct algorithm of actions for bronchial asthma makes it possible to alleviate the patient’s condition within 15 minutes.
When there is no inhaler or other medications on hand, and an asthma attack has begun, you need to know what to do in such circumstances. A number of effective methods have been developed that will improve health without the use of drugs. If one of them did not bring relief, you can use several at once.
What exactly helps with asthma attacks in each case depends on the individual characteristics of the organism and the course of the disease. It is important when taking measures to constantly monitor the patient’s condition. If there is a noticeable deterioration or lack of progress, actions are stopped immediately and await the arrival of an ambulance.
You can relieve an asthma attack without medication in the following ways:
- Prepare a solution of soda: dissolve two teaspoons of the powder in a glass of warm water. Consumed in three approaches for half an hour.
- Gently massaging the wings of the nose reduces shortness of breath.
- Inhale using medicinal herbs. Thyme and eucalyptus will do. The drug quickly enters the respiratory tract, causing a bronchodilatory effect. Before carrying out the procedure, you must make sure that there are no allergic reactions to the components used.
- Breathing exercises will help to normalize the condition. Prolonged inhalation and exhalation through the nose for ten minutes will prevent a panic attack.
- Make hot baths for hands and feet, put mustard plasters or a heating pad on the calf muscles. Helps reduce spasm, improve blood flow, restore respiratory function. The method is prohibited for use by people with diseases of the cardiovascular system.
- Stretch the back muscles in the upper torso and chest to improve blood flow and relieve pain. The impact should not be strong.
- Place a humidifier in the immediate vicinity of the patient’s bed. If you have an oxygen bag, you can use it.
Emergency care in a medical facility
The provision of emergency medical care for bronchial asthma in a hospital setting is considered the most effective. The availability of qualified specialists and the necessary equipment in the clinic allows us to cope with even the most difficult cases.
If, after all the therapeutic measures, a positive result is observed , the patient is given recommendations and sent home. However, if the doctor doubts the stability of the patient’s condition, he is left in the hospital for further examination and observation.
The provision of emergency care for an attack of bronchial asthma begins immediately upon arrival at the hospital. The patient’s medical record is preliminarily studied, which contains data on the course of the pathology, drugs taken and substances that cause allergies.
Measures to help with bronchial asthma are taken by medical personnel. By the arrival of a patient with symptoms of exacerbation, equipment for artificial ventilation and an Ambu bag should be prepared .
Before the patient is examined by a doctor, a nurse provides first aid for bronchial asthma. She must follow a certain algorithm of actions:
- Remove the patient’s outerwear, open the collar. To make the patient comfortable. Relaxation of the muscles makes breathing easier.
- Provide fresh air flow into the room. If necessary, use humidified oxygen.
- Prohibit the use of the patient’s inhaler (to prevent addiction to the drug). It is necessary to apply an aerosol based on salbutamol sulfate to relieve spasms.
- Give a warm drink, you can just water.
During a specialist examination of the patient, the nurse stays close to administer the necessary drugs or other medical appointments.
When an acute attack of bronchial asthma occurs, it must be quickly stopped. Take a person out of this state with the help of medication. All drugs and their dosage are prescribed by a doctor. Treatment begins after examining the patient and establishing the severity of the pathology.
First aid for an attack of bronchial asthma includes the following actions:
- A subcutaneous injection is given for bronchial asthma. Usually, epinephrine is used in the form of a solution or an aqueous suspension. After the injection, the muscles relax, and the bronchi expand. The drug is not recommended for people with diseases of the cardiovascular system.
- Medical treatment for an attack of bronchial asthma includes intravenous administration of corticosteroids. These hormones relieve puffiness and have antihistamines.
- To relieve bronchospasm, drugs from the xanthine group are injected intravenously.
- Steam-oxygen inhalations are effective. They thin phlegm and facilitate the removal of mucus from the bronchi.
Emergency care for an attack in children
The child is as susceptible to the described pathology as adults. Signs of the disease can appear at any age. Often, a predisposition to the disease is inherited if the closest relatives suffered from this ailment. Emergency care for bronchial asthma in children requires caution. The main problem in this case is the swelling of the mucous membranes, and not the spasm of the bronchi, so you should not use an inhaler, the drug will not bring relief.
- Make the child more comfortable.
- Give combined drugs for AD or drugs from the xanthine group.
- Calm the baby down, give sedatives. Panic aggravates choking.
- To relieve symptoms, make warm hand and foot baths.
- Provide fresh air in the room by opening the window.
If the child’s condition does not return to normal within half an hour, it is necessary to urgently go to a medical facility.
Prevention of seizures
To reduce the frequency of exacerbations, asthmatics are advised to:
- avoid contact with allergens;
- carry out wet cleaning daily, ventilate the room;
- enter in the medical record a list of drugs that cause an attack;
- monitor the composition of products if there is a food allergy;
- engage in physiotherapy exercises;
- timely treat pulmonary pathologies;
- to refuse from bad habits;
- if the first signs of the disease are found, immediately consult a specialist;
- visit a doctor regularly (every six months) to assess the general condition of the body.
Bronchial asthma cannot be completely cured, but it is possible to reduce the number of exacerbations. A person with this diagnosis must take care of his health, lead a correct lifestyle, and take prescribed medications in a timely manner.
Relatives of an asthmatic need to know how to provide emergency care in an emergency.