The number of people suffering from bronchial asthma is increasing from year to year. The first manifestations of the disease today are possible even in preschool children. Asthma affects people of all ages, the basis of the pathology is chronic inflammation, affecting mainly the bronchial mucosa and underlying tissues. Today, the development of attacks associated with various pathologies – sinusitis, pollinosis, reflux disease. No less common is the professional form of pathology, less often there are reactions to medication or food.
Causes of bronchial asthma attacks
Although the exact causes of asthma are unknown, scientists have identified risk factors that increase the likelihood of chronic bronchitis and seizures in humans. Leading options for the development of attacks:
- Heredity. The presence of parents or close relatives who have defined bronchial asthma;
- Unfavorable ecology. Effects of air pollution typical of large cities and industrial centers;
- Smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke, vaping, hookahs;
- Professional factors. Working contact with volatile liquids, gases or solid dust that can lead to bronchial inflammation and seizures;
- Deviations in body weight. It is known that lack of weight, as well as overweight, are risk factors for the development of bronchial asthma;
- Acid reflux with heartburn or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Usually, asthma is triggered by several factors at once, against the background of unfavorable heredity, professional or environmental factors act.
Occupational asthma: causes of inflammation
Bronchial asthma, which is called occupational, can be triggered by the effects of triggers in the workplace, or the previously existing mild inflammation of the respiratory tract is greatly enhanced under the influence of occupational factors. Asthma is one of the variants of occupational allergic inflammation, along with dermatitis, conjunctivitis, or rhinitis. For example, inflammation of the bronchi can be provoked by a pair of disinfectants, talcum glove. If these are workers in chemical plants, chronic inflammation of the bronchi is possible as a result of irritation with volatile compounds (ammonia, acids, fumes).
Provocateurs of asthmatic attacks can be various compounds that are used in industry. These include:
- Work with chemical compounds (various types of varnishes, plastics, rubbers, resins);
- Constant contact with household chemicals (cleaning products, detergents, powders);
- Work with animals (protein compounds of the skin, dandruff, saliva, wool);
- Tissue particles, dyes, fiber impregnators;
- Contact with metals and salts, vapors of various compounds.
In the case of asthma caused by occupational exposure, the symptoms usually worsen on working days. In home conditions, the state is relatively satisfactory, no seizures occur. Among the main manifestations are cough and discomfort in the chest, shortness of breath or a feeling of shortness of breath, a runny nose or severe congestion, redness of the eyes or tearing.
Communication pathology with sinusitis
Acute (or chronic) sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses associated with the middle ear and the concha. The accessory sinuses are important for breathing and the formation of speech, they warm, filter and moisturize the air when a person breathes. Symptoms of sinusitis include the discharge of thick, greenish-yellow mucus from the nose, coughing episodes, postnasal mucus flowing with an unpleasant taste in the mouth, headache and pressure in the projection of the sinuses, as well as a feeling of fullness or swelling of the face, toothache, and sometimes fever.
Sinusitis and asthma attacks often coexist. In the presence of sinusitis, the treatment of asthma attacks can be significantly hampered. Constant inflammation in the paranasal sinuses, which is characterized by sinusitis, contributes to the maintenance of the inflammatory process in the bronchi.
Treatment of sinusitis includes the use of anti-inflammatory nasal sprays (steroid), as well as antihistamine and anti-edema drugs. If the sinuses are infected with microbes, appropriate antibiotic therapy will be prescribed to treat the infection.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease: how is it associated with asthma
There is evidence that up to 75% of asthmatics have manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux. This is a reflux of the stomach contents (including pepsin and hydrochloric acid) into the esophagus and pharynx. It is believed that the risk of developing reflux disease (systematic reflux of the contents and chronic tissue inflammation) in asthmatics is twice as high as among healthy patients. Especially often patients with severe, treatment-resistant forms of asthma suffer from GERD.
Against the background of the disease, the throwing of acid into the esophagus leads to heartburn (painful, painful burning sensation in the chest). If you do not carry out active treatment, the presence of GERD can provoke ulcerative lesions of the esophagus, damage to the respiratory tract, creates prerequisites for esophageal cancer.
If the cause of asthma becomes manifestations of reflux disease, then the attacks begin in people of mature age, all symptoms are provoked by meals or physical activity, may occur at night, immediately after taking a vertical position. At the same time, bronchial asthma does not respond to standard therapy.
The role of nutrition, reflux and irritation in the genesis of seizures
When eating irritating food, overeating can increase the synthesis of acid, there is a reflux of the contents of the stomach up into the esophagus and oropharynx, which leads to irritation of the mucous membranes. Swelling and irritation of the pharynx provoke bronchospasm and irritation of the mucous membranes, leading to coughing and difficulty breathing. In addition, a reflex is triggered against the background of casting a part of the food mixed with acid into the esophagus, which leads to a narrowing of the respiratory tract, which can cause shortness of breath.
To reduce the manifestations of reflux disease and asthma attacks, it is important to control your diet by refusing to accept irritating foods and drinks three hours before going to bed. In addition, it is necessary to take drugs that reduce the manifestations of reflux. It is important to take the usual diet often, but in small portions, without overeating, to control body weight so that intra-abdominal pressure does not increase. Reduces the risk of acid in the esophagus refusal to accept irritating food – soda, coffee or chocolate, mint or fatty foods, and alcohol. It is necessary to reduce the intake of citruses and juices, tomatoes.