The body’s response to external stimuli is swelling of the mucous membrane, redness and rashes on the skin. Immunoglobulin E is responsible for this.
The production of these antibodies in response to the appearance of foreign cells (including bacteria, fungi) occurs in the submucosal layers of the digestive system, skin, tonsils, adenoids, and respiratory tract.
The index of immunoglobulin E in bronchial asthma is important for diagnosis. This disease is associated with choking, shortness of breath and coughing caused by inflammation and reaction of the bronchi to irritants.
What is immunoglobulin E
Immunoglobulin E is a special type of proteins produced by group B lymphocytes, which is responsible for the immune system’s response to the penetration of parasites (toxoplasma, trichinella, ascaris) into the body and has an anthelmintic effect.
IgE is also involved in the development of inflammation when allergens enter the body.
Often increased immunoglobulins with atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma and urticaria. Many people have a genetic disposition to the appearance of allergic antibodies, which include IgE immunoglobulins.
Distinguish between early and delayed phase of allergy. In the first, under the influence of active substances, the permeability of the vascular walls increases, tissue edema develops, the secretion of the glands is activated, the nerve endings are irritated, and the muscles in the organs contract.
Under the action of biologically active substances, blood cells are attracted to the area of inflammation, which release anti-inflammatory mediators.
Analysis for immunoglobulin E
The level of immunoglobulin E is determined in the following situations:
- with infections, inflammations or allergic manifestations;
- with primary immunodeficiencies;
- with malignant tumors;
- with symptoms of bronchopulmonary aspergillosis;
- when prescribing immuno-specific therapy. It can be carried out with IgE values of 30-700 IU / ml.
In bronchial asthma, the research program begins with the delivery of tests, after which the cause of the pathology is determined and the correct therapy is prescribed.
In addition to the general analysis (for hemoglobin, ESR, leukocyte and erythrocyte count), immunological and biochemical blood tests, sputum analysis are carried out. If necessary, the specialist prescribes additional examinations.
Before taking the analysis, you cannot eat for 8 hours, it is recommended to exclude fried, fatty, alcoholic beverages from the diet per day.
Immunological studies are aimed at detecting an increase in the level of IgE, which is important for the differentiation of infectious-dependent and allergic forms of asthma.
At the same time, the volume of immunoglobulin and specific antibodies in the blood serum is also determined.
The general level of immunoglobulin is not a basis for a diagnosis, because this indicator can be the same in a healthy and sick patient.
Determination of the level of specific IgE is carried out by means of skin tests, and in case of a high risk of anaphylactic reactions – using a radioallergenic test.
After the determination of specific immunoglobulins in the blood serum, possible allergens are identified. As a rule, the level of IgE exceeds the normative values, and T-suppressor leukocytes are reduced.
Immunoglobulin E in health and in asthma
In a normal state, the level of total immunoglobulin E in blood plasma will be low, since there is no need to produce a protective protein in the absence of atopic antigens.
In children, the total IgE indicator changes with age and differs from the norms for adults. By the time of puberty, these numbers are established and then do not change. In old age, the amount of protective antibodies decreases – this is normal.
If the IgE content in an adult is 3-423 IU / ml, then its level is normal. In bronchial asthma, these figures are 120-1200 IU / ml.
But high levels of immunoglobulin are not the basis for diagnostic conclusions, since there are many reasons for its increase, for example, hay fever and allergic rhinitis.
In-depth research is needed to determine exactly why the allergen-specific IgE is elevated.
The role of class E immunoglobulins in the development of bronchial asthma
Atopic bronchial asthma, like other diseases of an allergic nature, develops when allergens (food additives, dust, pollen, foreign protein, drugs, chemicals, etc.) enter the body.
With the development of an allergic reaction, specific immunoglobulins are released. They signal the onset of inflammation.
With an increase in the content of immunoglobulins E in the blood, the number of receptors for these antibodies on the surface of cells that activate allergic reactions increases.
As a result, inflammatory mediators are released, which leads to the development of severe symptoms. People with severe bronchial pathology have much more receptors for immunoglobulins than those with a mild form or healthy people.
If special attention is paid to reducing the effect of IgE during treatment, then it is possible to exclude or reduce the intensity of inflammation, since there will be less release of substances that provoke it.
You can also bind E-molecules in the blood before they are deposited on cellular receptors using antibodies isolated from the body of animals.
However, foreign proteins themselves can lead to the development of allergic manifestations, especially in asthmatics, so not everyone and not always are allowed such therapy.
Anti-IgE therapy for bronchial asthma
In asthma, clinical testing is used to detect the response caused by immunoglobulin. At the same time, allergens are applied to the damaged skin or injected subcutaneously. Immunoglobulin begins to be secreted, causing inflammation in the contact area.
You can get a referral for diagnosis from an allergist who will prescribe the correct treatment. Previously, bronchial asthma therapy was carried out by removing the narrowing of the bronchi with the help of bronchodilator drugs. But in asthmatics only the manifestations of an attack were alleviated, but it was not possible to prevent exacerbations.
Nowadays, doctors have made progress in treatment by studying the nature of asthma. In patients it became possible to prevent exacerbations and seizures.
Bronchial asthma is often treated with high doses of inhaled glucocorticosteroids in combination with beta-2 agonists or hormonal pills.
But even with such enhanced therapy, symptoms cannot always be controlled. Therefore, scientists are looking for drugs that affect the cause of the disease.
Anti-IgE therapy is recommended for severe asthma. Patients are injected with a special substance – omalizumab, which blocks the activity of immunoglobulin E. As a result, the number of exacerbations in asthmatics decreases, the need for systemic hormones decreases, and the quality of life improves.
The drug is highly effective; when taken, signs of allergy rarely appear and no dangerous consequences have been identified. Omalizumab is prescribed to children over 6 years of age and adults with a confirmed atopic nature of the disease after an allergy test, revealing an increased content of total immunoglobulin in the blood serum.
The drug is injected under the skin every 2-4 weeks, the dosage is selected based on the IgE level.
In addition, depending on the causes of the disease, the following drugs are prescribed:
- Antihistamines. Block receptors that respond to histamine, which is involved in the development of an allergic reaction.
- Topical preparations (to reduce the external manifestations of pathology, prevent complications) – ointments and drops with anti-inflammatory action.
- Anthelmintic drugs to combat parasitic invasion.
- Immune system stimulants that reduce allergic manifestations.
Medicines are prescribed by a doctor, taking into account the characteristics of the course of bronchial asthma, the severity and causes of exacerbations.
From folk remedies, a decoction of St. John’s wort leaves, centaury grass, horsetail, corn stigmas, chamomile inflorescences, dandelion root and rose hips are often used.
You can also use a mixture of eggshell powder and lemon juice, or make a decoction of burdock and dandelion roots.
Unfortunately, asthma cannot be completely cured, but it can be controlled. You should adhere to medical recommendations to prevent exacerbations of the disease and lead a fulfilling life.
To control the condition, you need to regularly take a blood test to determine the level of immunoglobulin E.