Types of pneumonia

Lung inflammation is classified based on several criteria. Among them, the etiology of the disease, the area of ​​distribution, the duration of the incubation period, the localization of the foci of inflammation are distinguished . The list also includes the severity of the disease, pathogenesis, type of pathogen and its route of entry into the body (in case of infection). Community-acquired and hospital types of pneumonia require different therapeutic methods. Treatment for a child and an adult is prescribed, taking into account the results of a diagnostic examination. Infection can be caused by viruses, mycoplasma, fungi and bacteria. The pathogen enters the body through the upper respiratory tract. The situation is aggravated by weakened immunity, acute and chronic pathologies of the respiratory system. Pneumonia often appears against the background of a stroke, drug and alcohol coma, aspiration, mechanical trauma.                  


Localization classification

There are several types of pneumonia, especially the following:  

  • Total – the inflammatory process captures the lungs over the entire surface.
  • Unilateral or bilateral – dysfunction of one or two parenchymal organs occurs. In the latter case, the risk of negative consequences increases.  
  • Drainage – several foci of inflammation merge into one. As a result, the affected area is greatly expanded.  
  • Croupous – this variety is also called lobar. This is due to the fact that the disease affects certain lobes of the lung. Most often seen in adult patients.
  • Focal – the progression of the disease leads to a violation of the structure of a small area on the surface of the respiratory system. 
  • Segmental – there are one or more bronchopulmonary segments in the affected area. Alveolar collapse is observed.
  • Subtotal – only a small part of the damaged organ functions normally.
  • Interstitial – an atypical pathogen becomes an etiological factor . The inflammatory process affects the connective cells that are located near the alveoli.    

Bronchopneumonia is a disease resulting from the accumulation of phlegm in the bronchi. The disease is progressing rapidly. The population of pathogens is rapidly increasing, due to which the cells of the parenchymal organ undergo destructuring. The affected area can occupy a different area. It depends on the severity and stage of the pathology.

Croupous pneumonia is caused by pneumococci. This type of pneumonia is quite common. The disease affects the entire surface of the lung or only a third of it. The larger the affected area, the higher the risk of consequences. If total pneumonia is detected, the patient is urgently hospitalized. This is due to the poor prognosis. The clinical picture contains:  

  • respiratory failure;
  • daytime sleepiness;
  • dyspnea;
  • confusion of consciousness;
  • unreasonable anxiety;
  • general malaise;
  • debilitating cough;
  • hyperthermia.

Chemotherapy drugs are included in the drug regimen. Drugs with an antibacterial effect in total pneumonia do not have a positive effect.

In septic inflammation lung necrosis functional tissue occurs. This process is accompanied by the development of cavities containing pus and necrotic fluid. Fibrosis is possible. Pneumonia develops in three stages. At the first stage, the process of purulent infiltration is activated. The second is characterized by the opening of the focus of inflammation. In the third stage, scar tissue is formed. The symptoms are as follows:     

  • chills;
  • a sharp increase in body temperature;
  • painful sensations in the sternum;
  • blood poisoning;
  • coughing;
  • separation of a large amount of sputum.

One of the most dangerous types of pneumonia is basal pneumonia. In this case, the focus is in the lower parts of the respiratory system. Basal pneumonia develops very quickly. The progress of pathology is evidenced by acute pains arising from coughing and breathing. 

The body temperature rises to 40 degrees Celsius. Therapy should only take place in a stationary setting. Ignoring the clinical manifestations is fraught with the occurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax, purulent peritonitis, ulcer perforation.     

Severity classification

According to the modern WHO classification, pneumonia is divided into the following types: mild, moderate and severe. With pneumonia of mild severity, the symptoms are rather mild. In the clinical picture, signs of toxic damage may be present. At the initial stage, pneumonia is called typical.     

A sharp rise in temperature and an increase in respiration rate become a significant cause for concern. The characteristic signs include the defeat of one or more segments of the organ. When conducting a general and biochemical blood test, an increase in ESR and moderate leukocytosis are revealed. Hospitalization is usually not required.  

Inflammation of the lungs of moderate severity is characterized by such signs as hyperthermia and moderate intoxication. In the second stage of the development of pneumonia, pleurisy may develop. The patient must be prescribed drugs that have antipyretic and expectorant effects.

You will also need medication to relieve spasms. Thus, respiratory distress and wet cough are eliminated. Another symptom characteristic of moderate pneumonia is cyanosis of the skin. Treatment should take place in a stationary setting. Home therapy will not be enough. The patient is sent to the department of pulmonology. 

With severe pneumonia, all of the above symptoms are exacerbated. Body temperature rises above 39 degrees Celsius. She can hold on throughout the day. The following symptoms may also appear:  

  • loss of orientation in space;
  • changes in blood biochemical parameters and x-ray results ; 
  • hallucinations;
  • drop in blood pressure.

Skin color changes due to cyanosis. At this stage, both parenchymal organs are damaged, which is fraught with pleural empyema and other serious complications. Also, pneumonia can be protracted and stagnant. The latter type of the disease most often occurs in bedridden patients. In this case, the situation is aggravated by slow blood circulation. Prolonged pneumonia requires long-term treatment.     

Atypical pneumonia is a type of ailment in which there are no signs of a typical form. Given the special nature of the disease, it is rather difficult to find an effective therapeutic regimen. This is due to the difficulties that arise in the differential diagnosis. In the clinic, there are signs similar to those of respiratory pathologies. Changes in the blood test are often absent. X-rays are used to confirm the diagnosis . At risk are newborns and adolescents.           

The prognosis in most cases is unfavorable. In the absence of timely treatment for bacterial or viral pneumonia, a lethal outcome is possible. In the severe stage of pneumonia, the mortality rate is quite high. This is due to the fact that the resulting pathological changes are often irreversible.      

event_note October 22, 2021

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