Asthma is a serious illness of the respiratory system that requires constant supportive treatment. Even so, an attack can occur at any time. In order to avoid the development of exacerbations, it is required to take medications to stop the inflammatory process in the bronchi.
Doctors often prescribe Pulmicort for asthma. This is due to its ability to effectively relieve inflammation and prevent the development of seizures in a patient for a long time.
Composition and release forms
The drug is supplied to pharmacies in two forms:
- Suspension Pulmicort , packaged in doses. It is used in asthma for inhalation with a nebulizer. Each carton contains 20 plastic containers. It is produced in two dosages: 0.25 mg / ml and 0.5 mg / ml of active ingredient.
- Powder for inhalation. The pharmaceutical name is Pulmicort Turbuhaler . Also sold in two dosages. First option: 200 doses, each containing 100 mcg of active ingredient. Second option: 100 doses of 200 mcg. The medicine is packaged in a metered dose inhaler.
The main active ingredient of Pulmicort is budesonide . In addition, the composition of the drug includes excipients:
- disodium edatate ;
- sodium citrate;
- sodium chloride;
- citric acid, etc.
The mechanism of action of the drug
The drug is a glucocorticosteroid . Its method of application is inhalation.
According to the instructions, budesonide (the main active ingredient) reduces inflammation in the bronchi. This effect is achieved by reducing the activity of the immune system and reducing the production of inflammatory mediators. The drug has a decongestant effect, it also relieves hyperemia and spasms. Due to these properties Pulmicort for asthma prevents choking and improves the patient’s condition.
The inhalation method of administration ensures dosage accuracy. Compared to systemic hormonal drugs, Pulmicort causes much fewer side reactions in the body. It is well tolerated. In this regard, this medicine can be used for a fairly long time.
During inhalation, the drug enters the human body and is absorbed very quickly. It has been established that about 30% of the active substance enters the lungs. After 30 minutes, the maximum concentration of the drug accumulates in the patient’s blood. The drug is excreted along with urine.
Ways of using Pulmicort
The drug Pulmicort is prescribed in the following cases:
- Obstructive pulmonary disease.
Most often, inhalation with Pulmicort is prescribed as a preventive measure, since the pronounced effect of the drug manifests itself some time after the procedure.
Before using the drug, it is necessary to consult a specialist, since the doctor prescribes the dosage individually, depending on the patient’s condition and the severity of the disease.
The drug is available in two types:
- Ready suspension.
- Powder for Turbuhaler .
Before using any form of Pulmicort, it is imperative to carefully study the instructions.
The drug is used for inhalation, and the dose is selected individually by the attending physician. Moreover, if the daily dose does not exceed 1 mg, then one procedure per day is sufficient. At a dosage of 2 mg or more, the drug will need to be divided into several inhalations.
Adults are advised to start using the drug with 1-2 mg per day. At the same time, the permissible dosage, which allows the patient to be maintained in a satisfactory condition, ranges from 0.4 to 4 mg / day.
To relieve severe conditions, the doctor may decide to increase the amount of medication taken.
Children over 6 months are advised to give no more than 0.25-0.5 mg / day. You can increase the dose only if necessary and as directed by your doctor.
For inhalations with Pulmicort suspension , a special device is needed – a nebulizer, which includes a special mask or mouthpiece. The procedure takes place in free breathing mode. Taking deep breaths or holding your breath is not recommended.
The patient should be aware that only compressor nebulizers are suitable for this drug. The use of ultrasound models is prohibited. You can find out the type of device by reading the instructions for it.
For the procedure, you must mix the suspension with saline. The prepared solution for inhalation is poured into a special container. The amount of liquid for the procedure is 2-4 ml.
After inhalation with Pulmicort, it is recommended to rinse your mouth to eliminate the risk of developing candidiasis. If a mask has been used, wash yourself so that there is no irritation on the skin.
The mask or mouthpiece must be rinsed with warm water and dried.
Powder for Turbuhaler
The dose of this drug, as in the case of the suspension, is selected individually. Initially, an increased dose is prescribed, and subsequently it is reduced to the minimum required. Usually, they tend to switch to a single dose of the drug.
The effect of the effects of Pulmicort appears several hours after inhalation. The drug has a cumulative effect, and the maximum result can be observed only after two weeks of taking the drug.
This remedy is not recommended for the relief of seizures, it is usually prescribed as maintenance therapy.
Before use, it is important to read the instructions and inhale correctly through the Turbuhaler mouthpiece . Exhalation through the device is not permitted.
After inhalation, rinse your mouth with water.
It should be noted that with a single overdose of the drug in adults, no manifestations were revealed. With a regular excess of the permissible amount of the drug, it is possible to suppress the functions of the adrenal cortex and pituitary gland. When the drug is stopped, their work is quickly restored.
The drug Pulmicort has a number of contraindications. They are divided into:
- Absolute. In this case, the medicine should not be taken under any circumstances.
- Relative. In this case, the ban is either temporary or depends on other external factors.
The absolute include:
- children’s age up to 6 months (up to 6 years for Turbuhaler ).
- individual intolerance to any components of the drug (allergic reactions);
Relative contraindications: Pulmicort should not be used for active tuberculosis, infectious diseases of the respiratory system, liver cirrhosis.
When taking the drug, it is important to remember that a systemic response to glucocorticosteroids may develop .
The inhalation method of administration of the drug causes fewer negative reactions compared to other methods. However, they cannot be completely ruled out.
When using Pulmicort , side reactions from the following organs and systems are possible:
- Respiratory system. Inhalation of the drug can be irritating to the respiratory system. This is manifested by severe irritation or burning in the affected area. Also, candidiasis can develop in the oral cavity. Hoarseness, dry mouth, bronchospasm or cough are also possible reactions to budesonide exposure .
- Allergy. The drug can cause angioedema.
- Nervous system. Taking Pulmicort can provoke headaches. Increased anxiety or depression is possible.
- Skin. Skin reactions are expressed in the development of dermatitis, rash or irritation.
When using Pulmicort , it is important to follow a number of rules to reduce the risk of developing a fungal infection in the oral cavity. This requires rinsing your mouth after the procedure. To avoid skin irritation, wash your face thoroughly.
Particular attention should be paid to the condition of the patient who has previously received systemic corticosteroids. When changing the drug to Pulmicort , problems with the adrenal glands and pituitary gland are possible.
When switching from oral hormonal drugs to Pulmicort , muscle pain may occur. Also, systemic insufficiency of glucocorticosteroids is indicated by fatigue, headache, nausea, and in some cases, vomiting.
According to the instructions, taking the medicine does not affect the patient’s attention, which means that driving is allowed.
It has been established that the use of Pulmicort has no effect on the growth and development of the baby. Budesonide passes into breast milk, but does not affect the baby.
However, the appointment of Pulmicort for pregnant and lactating women should be carried out with caution, given the possible delayed harm to the child. In case of exacerbation of bronchial asthma, the minimum effective dose should be prescribed.
Pulmicort in childhood
Pulmicort is allowed to be used when the child is 6 months old. At an earlier age, medication is prohibited. The initial dose is 0.25 mg / ml, which can be further increased by the doctor to 1 mg / ml.
The drug affects the growth of the child, so it is important to monitor this parameter when treating with budesonide .
It has been experimentally established that doses over 800 mcg per day can cause significant harm to the child’s body. At the same time, the duration of admission does not affect development.
The instructions indicate possible combinations of budesonide with other drugs:
- Taking ketoconazole increases the concentration of budesonide in the blood by about 6 times. This is important to consider if you need to take medications at the same time.
- Also, the effect of budesonide is enhanced by preliminary inhalations with beta- adrenostimulants , beta- adrenomimetics , bronchodilators by expanding the bronchi.
- Concomitant use with phenytoin, phenobarbital or rifampicin , on the contrary, reduces the effectiveness.
Pulmicort is an effective hormonal drug prescribed for the treatment of asthma. The inhalation route of administration significantly reduces side effects compared to other routes.
Since the effect appears only a few hours after application, Pulmicort is not used to relieve seizures, but it is well suited for long-term therapy.
Pulmicort can be taken only as directed by a doctor, since only a specialist is able to choose the correct dosage, taking into account the severity of the disease and the individual characteristics of the patient’s body.