Nothing to breathe, or what to do with an exacerbation of bronchial asthma
Despite the significant prevalence of bronchial asthma ( 6.9% of the
adult population of the world suffers from this disease), its course can be
controlled. With good disease control, patients do not experience frequent
symptoms or physical activity limitations due to asthma and do not require
symptomatic medication more than twice a week 1 . However, with any
severity of bronchial asthma, a sudden worsening can occur at certain periods
of time. During seasonal epidemics of acute respiratory infections and acute
respiratory viral infections, the risk of exacerbation increases, and you need
to be prepared for this, that is, to know what and how to do in order to stop
the symptoms yourself.
It became difficult to breathe
If you have been diagnosed with bronchial asthma (BA), then your first task is to carefully monitor your condition and, if symptoms of a worsening course of the disease appear, immediately use emergency drugs recommended in advance by your doctor.
Rule #1: ALWAYS HAVE A DOCTOR’S ACTION PLAN ON HAND
It is more difficult for those who first encountered the symptoms of bronchial asthma: in this case, you need to know how it manifests itself in order to immediately seek help, since delay can lead to serious complications, even death. So, you should be alert:
- wheezing wheezing;
- feeling of congestion in the chest;
- recurring bouts of coughing;
- frequent use of ambulance drugs (for diagnosed asthma).
Asphyxiation attacks can last for several minutes or even hours and
recur for several days 1 .
Rule #2: EVEN A SINGLE ATTACK OF SHOCKING IS A
REASON TO SEE A DOCTOR
Causes of exacerbation of bronchial asthma Provoking
factors (triggers) that cause an increase in inflammation of the airways and contribute to the development of acute bronchospasm can lead to an exacerbation of bronchial asthma. These include:
- respiratory tract infections (mainly viruses, most often rhinoviruses );
- air pollutants ;
- exercise stress;
- meteorological factors;
- certain drugs (beta-blockers, in patients with ” aspirin asthma” – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs);
- emotional reactions and stress;
- exacerbation of chronic diseases ( rhinosinusitis , gastroesophageal reflux);
- improper treatment 1 .
Rule #3 WITH A DIAGNOSED AD, TO THE
POSSIBILITY, EXCLUDE THE IMPACT OF PROVOCATING FACTORS THAT CAUSE EXAMINATION.
How to cope with exacerbation of bronchial asthma?
If, nevertheless, it was not possible to avoid an asthma attack, the most important thing is to relieve the symptoms of growing inflammation in the airways as soon as possible, and then to prevent their reappearance. A combination of bronchodilator drugs ( short-acting brocholytics ) and anti-inflammatory drugs ( glucocorticosteroids ) is used for this purpose . Bronchodilators can quickly relieve bronchospasm and ease breathing, while glucocorticosteroids relieve swelling and inflammation of the airways and restore lung function 1 . Timely use of glucocorticosteroids allows you to quickly and effectively relieve the symptoms of increasing inflammation in the airways and avoid hospitalization.
Rule #4 THE PLAN OF ACTION RECOMMENDED BY THE PHYSICIAN MUST CONTAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE DOSES OF SPECIFIC DRUGS AND THE DURATION OF THERAPY IN THE AGAINST BRONCHIAL ASTHMA.
Inhalation with a nebulizer: quick help during an exacerbation of asthma.
In the period of exacerbation of bronchial asthma, inhaled glucocorticosteroids (GCS) can be used through a nebulizer 1,2 . Inhalations of corticosteroids using a nebulizer allow you to quickly and effectively relieve the symptoms of bronchial asthma without significant side effects due to the delivery of the drug directly into the respiratory tract 1-4 . It is also important that such therapy can be carried out at home, without hospitalization.
There are several types of nebulizers: compressor type, mesh nebulizers
and ultrasonic ones. However, ultrasonic nebulizers are not suitable for
inhaling corticosteroids, as ultrasound destroys the active substance.
Rule #5 COMPRESSOR OR MEMBRANE TYPE NEBULIZERS (MESH NEBULIZERS) ARE SUITABLE FOR INHALATION GCS.
Outside the home, it is most convenient to use mesh nebulizers. Inhalation with such a device takes about 6-10 minutes. At the same time, it is almost silent and can work without a cord (from battery or USB), i.e. anywhere.
If you have asthma, you should agree with your doctor on a plan of action in case of an exacerbation of the disease. Take care in advance that during the season of colds and SARS in your home first-aid kit there is a supply of the necessary drugs recommended by the doctor. Carrying out inhalations of GCS using a nebulizer will help you quickly feel relief and return to your usual lifestyle.
ARI – acute respiratory disease, ARVI – acute respiratory viral infection .