The health of the unborn child directly depends on the condition of the mother during pregnancy. Some diseases pose a real threat. One of these dangerous pathologies is asthma, which can worsen during gestation. A few years ago, doctors did not recommend giving birth to women with such a disease. But medicine does not stand still, and today mothers with asthma give birth to healthy babies.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease. At the time of an attack, the lumen in the bronchi narrows, causing spasms, swelling of the mucous membranes of the larynx, which provokes suffocation. Cases of diagnosing asthma in pregnant women have recently become more frequent. This poses a threat, since it has a direct effect on the fetus. The unborn child experiences oxygen deprivation, which can provoke intrauterine hypoxia. Therefore, pregnant women with asthmatics should be constantly monitored by a doctor.
Pathology is classified based on etiology:
- atopic ;
- aspirin .
Also, diseases are classified according to the severity of the course, where there are four stages:
- Intermittent (episodic). The attacks are rare, often at night.
- Persistent (light). Symptoms appear several times a week.
- Medium severity. Frequent attacks that recur daily.
- Severe form. Daily attacks, more often at night.
Women who want to give birth to a healthy child must independently control their condition. Professional treatment of bronchial asthma in pregnant women will help avoid severe symptoms and save the life of an unborn baby.
The disease is common in women of childbearing age, which increases the number of pregnant patients. An attack in asthmatics can be provoked by:
- household chemicals;
- cigarette smoke;
- animal hair.
Under the influence of these factors, a woman develops shortness of breath, turning into attacks of suffocation. Sometimes asthma appears after a traumatic brain injury or as a result of disruption of the endocrine system.
The main method for diagnosing the disease is spirometry, which helps to determine the amount of air during exhalation. Diagnosis by peak flowmetry makes it possible to determine the expiratory flow rate. In addition, patients undergo a standard laboratory and instrumental examination, which includes:
- blood test (general, biochemical);
- X-rays of light;
- allergy test ;
- sputum culture ;
- computed tomography of the lungs (if necessary).
Diagnosis and subsequent treatment are carried out under the supervision of a pulmonologist, allergist or therapist.
Features of treatment in pregnant women
Patients often complain that asthma attacks become more frequent and more severe with the onset of pregnancy. Doctors explain this situation by a sharp change in hormonal levels, toxicosis.
Asthma during pregnancy leads to hypoxia, possible miscarriage or premature birth. There is a risk of impaired development, birth defects, serious disorders of the nervous system. Lack of proper treatment poses a threat to the health, life of the mother and her unborn child.
Most medications are contraindicated in pregnant women. Therefore, it is most often recommended to use special inhalers ( nebulizers ), which asthmatics have long appreciated. Their help can be effective for asthmatic women during pregnancy and as a preventive measure.
Inhalations give a local effect and affect only the bronchi, lungs, the concentration in the blood is minimal. Doctors do not recommend using inhalers containing freon.
A pregnant woman needs professional supervision. If before pregnancy she could control her condition herself, now this must be done together with a doctor. Any drugs, vitamins that have not been prescribed by a doctor must be excluded. Even if they were taken before pregnancy.
It is necessary that the expectant mother understands the severity of all complications that arise during pregnancy. If done correctly, asthma attacks may not even bother you during your entire pregnancy. In order not to provoke a new attack, several recommendations from medical professionals will help:
- avoid stressful situations, control the emotional state;
- moisturize housing daily, carry out wet cleaning;
- follow a diet, exclude seafood, exotic fruits, honey, coffee, eggs, chocolate from the diet;
- eliminate all bad habits;
- try not to have pets;
- adhere to the daily routine, rest more;
- use non-drug methods for treatment (climatotherapy, breathing exercises).
And then asthma will not be a contraindication for pregnancy.
There are several recommendations for conducting breathing exercises for pregnant women. This helps not only to relieve an attack, but also to prevent its occurrence. Therefore, this practice should be used not only for an asthmatic attack, but also as a preventive method. A new attack causes panic. It is necessary to learn how to control it. Stress aggravates the attacks.
Examples of exercises:
- If it is not possible to inhale, you must continue to take deep exhales.
- It is impossible to exhale, to continue inhaling. Sit up straight, straighten your shoulders and inhale as much air as possible.
- Take a deep breath, bend forward and exhale sharply.
- All exercises are performed while sitting, even on the floor.
Several of these exercises quickly relieve bronchospasm and reduce the risk of a possible attack.
What drugs are allowed
During pregnancy, a woman breathes and eats for two. Everything that she accepts will definitely go to the child. And if it is not possible to refuse drugs, doctors prescribe them with extreme caution. Usually prescribed:
- Pulmicort ;
- Beclomethasone ;
- Salmeterol ;
- Teopek ;
- glucocorticoid drugs.
Some components quickly cross the placenta to the fetus and can provoke tachycardia.
Traditional medicine in its arsenal has many tools that help in the fight against asthmatic attacks. Most often these are herbs that are used in the form of decoctions for inhalation. This is where nebulizers are suitable . There is no need to pour hot solutions into them, which eliminates the risk of possible burns. For the preparation of decoctions, herbs are used that help relieve swelling, spasms. It:
- St. John’s wort;
It is undesirable to use decoctions inside. Especially if the doctor did not advise it. Some can increase the tone of the uterus, lead to its prolapse and provoke an involuntary abortion. This is especially dangerous in the first trimester of pregnancy.
A woman during pregnancy should control her lifestyle, avoid stress, eat well and rest. As a preventive measure for asthma, doctors recommend:
- regularly rinse your nose with saline;
- use eye drops for conjunctivitis before walking during active flowering;
- avoid places where smokers are (secondhand smoke);
- maintain optimal humidity in the bedroom;
- limit or completely exclude contact with allergens.
These simple rules will help you avoid new attacks.
If a woman follows all the doctor’s recommendations and keeps her disease under control, the possibility of relapse during pregnancy is minimized. Childbirth usually takes place naturally. Children born to a mother with asthma are closely monitored by pediatricians during the first year of life. Pathology, if possible, must be identified early.