Radical pneumonia is an inflammatory process in the lungs that covers the entire organ along with nearby tissues. This ailment is difficult to detect at an early stage, which is why the risk of complications is greatly increased. Root pneumonia in children appears quite often. The situation is aggravated by the immaturity of the immune system and the negative impact of external factors. The latter include secondhand smoke and chronic respiratory diseases.
At the initial stage, the disease is asymptomatic. The focus of inflammation is localized at the root of the lung. If signs of pathology appear, the child should be immediately shown to the pediatrician. Foci of inflammation can appear in both the right and left lung. Right-sided root pneumonia in a child is diagnosed much more often than left-sided and bilateral. This is due to the structure of the right lung. The bronchi located in it are distinguished by a wide lumen. The failure of the drainage function increases the likelihood of developing congestion. The disease is classified not only by the localization of the affected area. Another important criterion is the course of pathology. In this case, the following types of pneumonia are distinguished:
- Tumor – the disease progresses slowly. In the area of the root of the bronchial tree, polycyclic changes and characteristic tubercles appear.
- Inflammatory – pneumonia develops at an accelerated rate. The parenchymal tissue is first compacted and then absorbed.
The earlier pneumonia is detected, the smaller the affected area.
Symptoms depend on the type of pathogen. With viral pneumonia, the clinical picture contains such signs as:
- wheezing in the lungs;
Atypical pneumonia is often confused with acute respiratory disease. Children refuse to eat, are capricious and do not sleep well. The disease provokes the appearance of catarrhal phenomena, discomfort in the throat, shallow rapid breathing, excessive sweating. Due to its protracted nature, the disease is especially dangerous. The development of respiratory failure is evidenced by cyanosis. The list also contains the following symptoms:
- retraction of the intercostal spaces;
- weakness in the whole body;
- dyspnea (even at rest).
Heart failure is possible. In the absence of timely therapy, the intensity of clinical signs increases significantly. This is the main difference between basal pneumonia and the typical form of the disease. The drugs that are used to lower the temperature often do not have a positive effect. Therefore, it is strictly forbidden to select medicines on your own.
Features of symptoms in children under 1 year of age
Identifying pneumonia in newborns and infants is difficult. Babies who are less than 12 months old have practically no ailment. The breathing rhythm does not change, wheezing in the lungs is also absent. The only symptom indicative of damage to the parenchymal tissue is an increased body temperature.
Increased body temperature
Poor appetite and cyanosis in the nose can be a significant cause for concern. The longer the pneumonia progresses, the stronger the apathy. The patient has sudden mood swings. Due to the localization of the inflammation focus, pneumonia is difficult to visualize.
Causes of the disease
The main factor provoking the development of the disease is infection. Pathogens include pneumococci, parasites, fungi, streptococci, viruses, staphylococci and Haemophilus influenzae. The child’s condition may worsen due to:
- intrauterine pathologies;
- weakened immunity;
- physical underdevelopment;
- congenital ailments of the cardiovascular system;
- rickets and other diseases caused by a lack of vitamins and minerals;
- negative impact of the external environment.
The list can be supplemented by toxic poisoning, allergic reactions and the influence of harmful substances.
To determine the exact cause of the malaise, the child is prescribed a diagnostic examination. It includes a survey and external examination of the patient. You can determine the location of the focus of inflammation by means of an X-ray. The information obtained during this procedure is not always reliable. The affected area, formed as a result of the inflammatory process, often merges with the root of the lung. In this case, pneumonia detected on an x-ray is confused with oncology or tuberculosis.
If in doubt, biopsy and tuberculin tests are done. Among the required methods, auscultation and percussion are distinguished. Through them, wheezing, shortening of the percussion sound is detected. The diagnosis is made, focusing on the data obtained during all diagnostic procedures.
Treatment of hilar pneumonia takes place in several stages. First, the pathogen is neutralized, then the lungs are restored. Rehabilitation is an obligatory part of the treatment course. Through it, relapse and complications are prevented.
Children are treated for pneumonia in a stationary setting. This is due to the fact that underage patients, like the elderly, are at risk. Contrary to popular belief, pneumonia is not airborne. Comprehensive treatment is prescribed by a doctor. The general scheme includes drug therapy, physiotherapy, methods of alternative medicine. It is necessary to strengthen control over the observance of sanitary and hygienic standards.
Physiotherapy procedures for pneumonia are allowed only at normal body temperature. The list of the most effective methods includes the following:
- warming compresses;
- breathing exercises.
If therapy was started in a timely manner, recovery occurs in a month. During this period of time, the child should be under the supervision of a doctor. The condition will improve within a few days after starting treatment.
To enhance the therapeutic effect, adjust the diet and drinking regimen. Fatty, salty and spicy foods will have to be replaced with lighter foods. All of the above measures are applied in order to:
- stop the inflammatory process;
- slow down the progression of pneumonia;
- strengthen the immune system;
- restore functional tissue of the lungs and mucous membranes lining the airways.
Children suffering from root pneumonia are prescribed medications from different groups, including:
- antiviral drugs;
- antitussive formulations;
- bronchodilators ;
- mucolytics ;
- antipyretic drugs.
Cardiac glycosides are prescribed as needed. The drug regimen for pneumonia is selected based on the diagnostic results.
The daily volume of fluid in pneumonia is increased. We’ll have to forget about soda, strong tea and coffee. They are replaced with saline solutions, fruit and vegetable juices, mineral water, broths prepared on the basis of medicinal herbs. Every prescription must be approved by a doctor. Otherwise, side effects cannot be avoided.
When choosing recipes, the child’s age, diagnosis and individual characteristics must be taken into account. Special care is needed when using honey, nuts and citrus fruits. They are strong allergens. Babies who are susceptible to allergies are not recommended to be treated with medicinal formulations containing these products.
Folk remedies are prepared from the following plants:
- St. John’s wort;
- mother and stepmother;
- calamus root.
The list of medicinal herbs used for pneumonia is quite extensive. Infusions and decoctions based on them are often combined with butter and propolis.
The prognosis for pneumonia depends on the stage at which the patient’s treatment began. If the diagnosis was carried out at the initial stages of pathogenesis, the risk of adverse effects is minimal. After complete restoration of the respiratory tract, the pulmonologist puts the minor patient on the dispensary. The observation lasts throughout the year.
To avoid relapse after an illness, the patient should regularly undergo preventive examinations. In the list of required events:
- timely elimination of foci of infection;
- proper nutrition;
- regular physical activity.
Children who have had root pneumonia should be outdoors more often. Babies with a history of vitamin deficiency are prescribed vitamin therapy.
Consequences of the disease
Root pneumonia can cause serious consequences. Among them are:
- cardiovascular pathology (endocarditis, myocarditis);
- lung abscess ;
- exudative pleurisy.
If you ignore the signs of the disease, a lethal outcome is possible.
Irreversible pathological changes in pneumonia often develop due to ineffective therapy. In this case, an error during the diagnostic examination becomes the root cause of the disease. Therefore, if you feel unwell, you should immediately contact a medical institution. Self-medication is strictly prohibited.