Bronchial pneumonia in children develops with untimely treatment of colds and causes many complications. The course of the disease is difficult, so the child needs to go to the clinic, where he can be provided with timely assistance in case of breathing problems. Parents need to know what symptoms children need immediate medical attention for.
The main symptoms
The symptoms of bronchial pneumonia are similar to those of a common cold. Doctors diagnose a disease if a patient has 4 signs at the same time:
- chest pain;
- shortness of breath.
The temperature in children lasts about 3 days and is accompanied by increased sweating. In addition, poor sleep, weakness, leg pain, lack of appetite, cyanosis are noted. The absence of a high temperature is an unfavorable factor for the patient, since it indicates poor immunity.
A patient’s cough with small-focal pneumonia is initially dry, over time, green sputum appears, sometimes with blotches of blood.
With the aggravation of the disease, the patient’s condition worsens. His breathing quickens, which is a sign of damage to the lobes of the lungs. Loss of consciousness and a decrease in blood pressure are possible.
The suspicion for parents of bronchial pneumonia in infants should appear when anxiety appears, decreased activity, reddening of the face. Bloated nasal wings and frequent respiratory arrest are common symptoms. Disruption of the lungs is evidenced by the release of foamy sputum.
The focal form of the disease develops most slowly, gradually worsening the patient’s condition.
Causes of the disease
Bronchial pneumonia is usually diagnosed when a person is not receiving proper treatment for an upper respiratory tract infection. It is most often found in babies under 3 years old.
The progression of the disease is accompanied by problems with the respiratory or cardiovascular system.
In childhood , the disease can develop under the influence of the following factors:
- frequent colds and otitis media;
- aspiration of the respiratory tract;
- infectious diseases of the mother during pregnancy;
- fetal asphyxia during childbirth;
- premature birth;
- fetal hypoxia.
The disease is often diagnosed in patients exposed to passive smoking and living in conditions unfavorable environmental conditions.
When examining patients with suspected respiratory disorders, the doctor performs pulmonary percussion and uses a phonendoscope, which allows you to hear wheezing in the chest and pleural friction. After that, the doctor prescribes a direction for a chest x- ray. In addition, a patient’s blood and sputum analysis is required. The most difficult thing to diagnose is radicular pneumonia.
If, despite therapy, the patient’s condition does not improve, he is referred for CT. With the help of this diagnosis, complications and concomitant diseases are detected, and bilateral pneumonia is also excluded .
Since the consequence of the disease when localized to the left is often heart problems, an ultrasound of the organ may be required.
According to medical statistics, right-sided bronchopneumonia in a child is most often diagnosed . With this pathology, streptococcus is found in the sputum.
What tests will be required to pass
To diagnose the disease, the patient must pass sputum for analysis. With this form of pneumonia, streptococci or pneumococci are present in it.
A blood test is required to assess the patient’s condition. If he has an infection, the number of leukocytes increases and the ESR increases.
Treatment of infection is carried out only in a hospital. To provide timely assistance, patients are admitted to the intensive care unit. If you do not delay the visit to the doctor, the baby can be cured in a month.
Children need to drink plenty of fluids. To maintain water balance, they are given a dropper.
After discharge from the hospital, therapy continues at home for the length of the time set by the doctor. The patient is not recommended to lie down a lot , as this leads to accumulation of sputum. Within a year after recovery, the child should be observed by a pulmonologist.
Left-sided pneumonia is difficult to treat due to the peculiarities of the blood supply to the bronchi in this side of the body.
Therapy involves taking antibiotics or antiviral drugs. The use of macrolides, cephalosporins and beta- lactam drugs, which are considered the most effective in the bacterial origin of the disease, is practiced . If the baby does not improve within two days , they are replaced.
Antipyretic is given at high temperatures. The dosage of drugs is calculated by the doctor, taking into account the weight and age of the baby.
The temperature in children is knocked down if it exceeds 38 degrees. For this, an antipyretic is used. Babies under 1 year old are given them when they reach 37.5 degrees.
In case of excessive accumulation of fluid, the doctor prescribes expectorant medications.
The prognosis is more favorable if therapy is started in the early stages of the disease.
In case of respiratory disorders, the patient should eat 6 times a day. Steaming is recommended, grinding the dishes to a state of gruel. The emphasis should be on foods that contain a sufficient amount of vitamins C, A, group B, as well as calcium.
Do not allow dehydration of the body, the child should receive a sufficient amount of fluid during the illness. Fruit drinks, juices and compotes are useful.
Foods prohibited during illness include fatty meat, lard, sugar, baked goods, vegetable and butter oils, chocolate, and legumes. It should not be allowed that at the same time as the infection, the child’s stomach swells and flatulence begins.
Alternative methods for bronchial pneumonia provide support to the body, but cannot be used as a treatment. Before giving them to children, you need to consult a pediatrician, since such drugs are highly allergenic. Most of them have contraindications for the patient’s age.
From folk remedies, a decoction of motherwort and chicory, as well as tincture of aloe with honey, have proven themselves well. Steam inhalation with eucalyptus oil and soda is also practiced , but this method is prohibited for children under one year old.
For the prevention of children, it is necessary to timely treat colds, preventing the appearance of complications. It is also necessary to vaccinate against Hib infections. For a baby to have good immunity, breastfeeding is recommended until 6 months of age.
Bacteria accumulate in dust, so it is necessary to regularly damp and ventilate the room, as well as maintain optimal air humidity.
Since this form of pneumonia is contagious, children should not be allowed to come into contact with the patient.
From complications of bronchial pneumonia, a child may develop respiratory failure. In this case, he will need artificial ventilation.
With untimely therapy in children, lung abscess and pleural inflammation, as well as myocarditis and encephalitis, are possible.
Bilateral pneumonia is the most dangerous because it can be fatal.
Bronchial pneumonia in symptomatology is much like a cold, and parents often ignore its first signs, thereby aggravating the child’s condition. At home , the disease cannot be treated, since respiratory failure may develop at any time. The sooner you start therapy, the faster your recovery will come.