Cough in children is observed quite often. Naturally, its appearance, especially in babies of the first years of life, causes concern among parents. In this article we will consider how to treat cough in children in 2 years.
There can be many reasons for the development of cough attacks in a 2-year-old child; before giving medication, it is required to find out the reason
- Cough in a 2-year-old child: drug treatment
- Folk remedies
- Distracting procedures
- What is a cough and its causes
Cough in a 2-year-old child: drug treatment
Coughing is a symptom of many and sometimes very serious diseases. And therefore, his treatment should be carried out only as prescribed by the doctor. Wrong choice of antitussive drugs can cause serious harm to the child’s body.
Central-action antitussive drugs with narcotic effect (Codeine, Dexometorphan, Morphine)
Inhibit the activity of the cough center of the brain. Application in young children is possible only in a hospital
Centrally acting antitussive drugs without narcotic effect (Tusuprex, Sinekold, Libexin, Glaucina hydrochloride)
Suppress the activity of the cough center. Do not cause respiratory depression and addiction. It is prescribed only with dry painful cough, for example with whooping cough
Enveloping agents (various syrups and lozenges, which include extracts of wild cherries, licorice, acacia, eucalyptus, honey, glycerin)
Form a protective layer on the mucous membrane of the oropharynx. They are prescribed to reduce irritation of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract
Expectorant preparations (Licorice root syrup, Althea root syrup)
Reduce the viscosity of bronchial secretions and increase its volume, which improves expectoration of sputum. In children of the first years of life, they should be used with caution, as they may increase cough-related vomiting.
Mucolytics (Ambroxol, Lazolvan, Bromhexine)
Dilute sputum, thereby improving its coughing. Bromhexine can increase bronchospasm, so it is not prescribed during an attack of bronchial asthma
Antihistamines (Zodak, Tavegil, Suprastin)
Assigned only with allergic cough. They have a drying effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, which can further increase dry cough
Bronchodilators (Eufillin, Theophylline, Atropine)
Indicated for bronchospasm. Atropine is rarely used in pediatric practice, as it increases the viscosity of sputum
Antitussive medicines for children are best used in the form of syrups or drops. Such “children’s” release forms provide accurate dosing. In addition, they have a pleasant taste, and a 2-year-old child accepts them with pleasure.
One of the most effective means is aerosol inhalation, which can be done at home using a nebulizer. Aerosol (small particles of liquid and drugs) moisturizes the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, reduces its irritation, and dilutes sputum.
For inhalation, you can use:
- physiological solution of sodium chloride;
- sodium bicarbonate solution;
- alkaline degassed mineral waters;
For inhalation in children of two years should use no more than 1.5 ml of solution. Repeat the procedure can be no more than 2-3 times a day.
Carrying out steam inhalation for young children is undesirable, and at elevated body temperature is strictly contraindicated.
In the treatment of children in the first years of life, traditional medicine methods can also be used. They are not effective enough to replace the main treatment if necessary, but can be used as an addition to it if such an addition is required and agreed with the attending physician.
As expectorants, for example, decoctions of the following medicinal plants are used:
- pine buds;
The mechanism of action of these medicinal plants includes the following links:
- liquefaction of bronchial mucus;
- increased secretory activity of the bronchial glands;
- improvement of the motor function of the ciliary epithelium and muscles of the bronchioles;
- activation of the respiratory center.
Parents should know that the natural origin of medicines is not a guarantee of their safety for the baby’s body. Alternative methods of treatment have a number of contraindications, and in addition, their use may be accompanied by the development of side effects.
Plants such as Ipecac and Thermopsis have an irritating effect on the gastric mucosa, due to which reflex stimulation of the vomiting center of the brain occurs. In this regard, they should not be used in children with diseases of the central nervous system. Side effects of these plants can be:
- the formation of atelectasis;
- aspiration of vomit;
Oregano, licorice and anise have not only an expectorant, but also a pronounced laxative effect. Therefore, they are not prescribed for children with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by diarrhea.
Decoctions of expectorant herbs begin to have a therapeutic effect quickly only if they are taken often, every 3-4 hours. This causes a sick child in a negative reaction, provokes crying, which, in turn, increases coughing.
Mustard plasters are contraindicated in young children.
Many adults remember how in childhood, with colds, mothers and grandmothers put them banks or mustard plasters. Currently, the attitude of doctors to these procedures has changed. We will try to explain why.
Previously, the therapeutic effect of cans and mustard plasters was associated with an improvement in blood flow to the diseased organ. But the reddened skin under the mustard or the formation of a hematoma at the site of the jar does not at all indicate that the processes of increased blood circulation began in deeper tissues, including the bronchi and lungs.
The reflexogenic effect of mustard plasters and cans is also doubtful, since it is impossible to prove it. These procedures are rather painful and are always accompanied by the discomfort of the baby, his crying. Against the background of crying, the depth and frequency of breathing increases, which, in turn, activates the blood flow in the lungs.
The effectiveness of cans and mustard plasters in treating cough in children is highly questionable. At the same time, these procedures are often accompanied by complications (skin burns, hematomas). In this regard, they are categorically not recommended for children of preschool age.
What is a cough and its causes
Coughing is a complex reflex act that allows you to restore normal airway patency. It is dry and wet (wet). In the latter case, the child coughs up sputum.
The reasons for its occurrence may be:
- infectious and inflammatory processes of the upper (pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis) and lower (tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia) of the respiratory system;
- bronchospasm (obstructive bronchitis, allergic cough, bronchial asthma);
- airway obstruction with viscous sputum, foreign bodies;
- pleural irritation (pleurisy);
- heart failure;
- stomach diseases.
The intensity of coughing in children is different, ranging from rare coughs and ending with severe attacks to vomiting. In the first case, the child usually does not need antitussive therapy, but he should still be shown to the doctor and conduct the necessary examination in order to identify the underlying disease.