Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic pathological conditions worldwide, which entails a number of significant social problems for both the adult population and children. Asthma is affected regardless of the level of development in all countries. In recent years, the number of cases of this disease has increased significantly.
Approaches to the treatment of bronchial asthma in connection with new scientific advances in the study of pathogenesis are constantly being reviewed and changed. But the goals and objectives of asthma treatment are unchanged and include the following aspects:
– firstly, it is necessary to achieve control over bronchial asthma, that is, to eliminate or at least mitigate the clinical manifestations of pathology;
– Further, it is necessary to ensure that exacerbations become as rare and less pronounced as possible;
– prevent the development of life-threatening conditions and even more so leading to death;
– normalize, or at least improve the results of the function of external respiration;
– it is necessary to restore and maintain age-appropriate physical activity;
– if possible, to reduce the need for bronchodilators;
– prevent disability.
The treatment of asthma can be divided into several directions:
- Elimination measures, that is, the elimination of etiological factors and risk factors.
- Control therapy (also called preventive). For this purpose, anti-inflammatory drugs are used – anti-leukotrienes, sodium nedocromil, inhaled glucocorticoids (they have been given special close attention recently), long-acting bronchodilators – salmeterol, for example, and combined drugs.
- Stopping the acute period of the disease.
- Allergy vaccination.
- Rehabilitation activities.
- Training of patients and their relatives.