What are respiratory diseases?

The respiratory organs perform one of the most important functions in the human body – the body’s nutrition with oxygen, without which the body cannot exist. The functioning and vital functions of literally all the organs of our body depend on the necessary volume of oxygen.

In addition to the function of delivering oxygen to the body, the respiratory system removes carbon dioxide from the body, and also participate in gas exchange, thermoregulation, smell, voice formation, humidification of inhaled air, hormone synthesis, lipid and water-salt processes. The respiratory organs perform a protective (immune) function of the body from the negative effects of the external environment on it: cold, dust, viruses, bacteria, fungus, etc.

Respiratory diseases

throat Sore throat in children
Bronchial asthma
Purulent sore throat
Catarrhal sore throat
Coronavirus infection COVID-19
Lacunar tonsillitis
Acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)
ARI (Acute respiratory disease)

Follicular tonsillitis

Human respiratory system

The human respiratory system consists of the following main organs:

  • nasal cavity;
  • oral cavity;
  • pharynx;
  • larynx;
  • trachea;
  • bronchi;
  • lungs.

Causes of respiratory diseases

Respiratory diseases , along with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are one of the most common diseases in the world. And there is a simple explanation for this: poor environmental conditions and poor nutrition.  

An increase in manufacturing enterprises, the number of cars, tree felling, an annual increase in temperature on Earth, droughts, failed scientific tests and other adverse factors from year to year exacerbate the environmental situation in the world. In addition, due to the deterioration in the quality of nutrition, the immune system of many people is weakened, so people are more and more sick.

Other causes of respiratory diseases

  • infections: viruses, bacteria, fungi and other pathogens;
  • allergy to dust, pollen, toxic gases, etc.
  • work in contaminated places (dust, dirt, fungus, etc.);
  • living close to a manufacturing enterprise;
  • autoimmune cause (malfunction of the body, in which the body produces substances that attack the cells of the body itself);
  • low-nutritional foods (fast foods, alcohol, GMOs, food without vitamins); 
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • non-observance of personal hygiene;
  • hereditary predisposition.

Some specific causes of respiratory disease

Stay in crowded places, especially where the rooms are poorly ventilated: lines in shops, trips in public transport, work in offices, etc. Literally one carrier of infection can infect more than one person, because many diseases are transmitted by airborne droplets, such as sneezing or coughing.  

Household appliances in the house: air conditioning, air cleaner, vacuum cleaner. This household appliance has dust, and sometimes antibacterial filters, which must be cleaned periodically, otherwise this technique will become a dangerous breeding ground for infection. The vacuum cleaner (dry type) must also be cleaned, as in place of blowing air is also a dust filter. If you hear an unpleasant odor after turning on the vacuum cleaner, it must be cleaned.   

Interior items: sofas, armchairs, mattresses, blankets, pillows, etc. Household dust consists of the smallest microparticles and microorganisms (dust mite), which are able to wade into any kind of cracks and cause a person to have various allergic reactions. 

Symptoms of respiratory diseases

When the first signs of respiratory disease appear, it is advisable to immediately consult a doctor. This minimizes the development of complications, and also increases the positive prognosis of treatment. It must be remembered that even a slight cough or sore throat, literally in a day or two, can develop into purulent tonsillitis, bronchitis or pneumonia (pneumonia).   

Consider the symptoms of respiratory diseases:

  • runny nose
  • nasal congestion;
  • cough;
  • hemoptysis;
  • sore throat;
  • redness in the throat;
  • chest pain;
  • dyspnea;
  • suffocation;
  • wheezing during breathing;
  • elevated or high body temperature;
  • chills;
  • weakness, general malaise.

Diagnosis of respiratory diseases

1. Anamnesis
2. Physical examination
3. Laboratory tests:
– X-ray examination of the chest; – fluoroscopy (extremely rare); – ultrasound; – determination of the gas composition of the blood; – endoscopic examination (laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy).  


Respiratory Disease Prevention

To minimize the risk of respiratory diseases, experts recommend that the following preventive measures be followed:

  • avoid crowded places, especially at the peak of activity of these diseases (late autumn – early spring);
  • observe the rules of personal hygiene; 
  • regularly wet the living room, do not forget to clean the filters of the air conditioner, vacuum cleaner and other equipment;
  • ventilate the premises of your stay;
  • try to eat foods enriched with vitamins and minerals; 
  • lead an active lifestyle;
  • give up bad habits – smoking and drinking alcohol;  
  • if possible, change your place of residence to ecologically clean areas;
  • avoid stress.

Sectors of medicine that study respiratory diseases

  • Otolaryngology (ENT): diseases of the upper respiratory tract – nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx. The doctor is an otolaryngologist. 
  • Pulmonology: diseases of the lower respiratory tract – trachea, bronchi, lungs. The doctor is a pulmonologist.  
event_note June 17, 2020

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