Pneumonia is an ailment of an infectious and inflammatory nature, in which the structural tissues of the lung are damaged. The clinical picture includes fever, wet cough, general malaise, dyspnea, excessive sweating. It is necessary to diagnose the disease in a timely manner and begin treatment. The treatment complex includes antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics for pneumonia are allowed to be used in both acute and chronic stages.
To achieve maximum effect, these drugs are combined with antihistamines and mucolytics. This list is supplemented with medicines that have immunostimulating and detoxifying properties. Antibacterial agents are selected based on the results of a diagnostic examination.
Pneumonia is a life-threatening illness (especially for newborns). Oxygen imbalance provokes the appearance of irreversible pathological changes in humans . Antibiotics are prescribed if the patient suffers from bacterial pneumonia. In other cases, they will not help.
Indications for admission
Antibiotics are prescribed by a doctor. A significant reason for their appointment is the appearance of the following signs:
- high body temperature ;
- excruciating cough, accompanied by the discharge of “rusty” sputum;
- nausea, vomiting;
- loss of appetite;
- weakness in the whole body;
- wheezing in the lungs.
Negative symptoms detected during the time of diagnosis. The disease can be triggered by streptococci, klebsiella, staphylococci, enterobacteria, haemophilus influenzae, legionella, chlamydia and mycoplasma. In most cases, pneumococcus causes pneumonia.
For each of the listed pathogens, a specific medication is required. Not knowing the type of pathogen, it is quite difficult to find an effective antibiotic. Ignoring this nuance is fraught with accelerated progression of pneumonia. The patient must follow all the recommendations of the attending physician.
The elderly and preschool children are more likely to suffer from pneumonia than other patients. Patients from these categories are prescribed antibiotics with extreme caution. This is due to chronic pathologies (in the elderly), an unformed immune system (in babies). The risk group includes patients suffering from a decrease in protective function.
It should be noted that antibiotics are allowed to be used for pneumonia without waiting for the results of a diagnostic examination. During the several days required to identify the pathogen, the patient usually takes antibacterial drugs with a wide spectrum of action. Pneumonia develops in three stages:
- Body temperature is not more than 38 degrees Celsius, symptoms of intoxication are mild.
- There are disturbances in the work of the cardiovascular system, dyspnea develops.
- The temperature rises to critical levels. Against the background of hyperthermia, signs of dyspeptic disorder appear. Clouding of mind is possible. In the clinical picture, there are signs of acute respiratory failure.
To get rid of the characteristic symptoms of pneumonia, the doctor selects a combined treatment complex. At the same time, he must take into account the risk of side effects when combining funds belonging to different pharmacological groups. If necessary, antibiotics with a different mechanism of action are included in one drug regimen .
Antibiotics are not recommended for use if the patient suffers from hypersensitivity to the components of the composition, liver and kidney pathologies. The list of contraindications must include pregnancy and childhood.
If the order of taking prescribed medications is violated, a sharp deterioration in the patient’s well-being may occur. Therefore, before starting therapy, you must read the instructions for use. Antibacterial drugs can cause the following side effects:
- dyspepsia, upset stool, intestinal colic;
- an allergic reaction – tearing, rashes on the skin, Quincke’s edema, anaphylactic shock;
- candidiasis – cheesy discharge, constant discomfort, itching;
- malfunctions of the vestibular apparatus, sleep problems, chronic fatigue.
- The list is supplemented with an inflammatory process in the liver, hematological diseases.
Each antibacterial drug has specific characteristics. There are no antibiotics on the pharmacy counters that can help with any type of pneumonia. Penicillins, quinolones and cephalosporins will help neutralize the negative effects of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and parasites, but they will not get rid of inflammation in the bronchi, provoked by viral infection.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics include:
- Cephalosporins – good for eliminating severe infections. Antibiotics of the last (fourth) generation are distinguished by an almost complete absence of side reactions.
- Penicillins – quickly enter the bloodstream and functional tissues. Fight against staphylococci and streptococci. They are natural and semi-synthetic.
- Aminoglycosides – inhibits the replication of aerobic gram-negative bacteria.
- Macrolides – destroy chlamydia, cocci and legionella.
- Fluoroquinols – are prescribed for pathologies provoked by legionella and Escherichia coli.
- Tetracyclines – today drugs from this group are rarely used. This is due to the fact that harmful microorganisms quickly develop resistance to tetracyclines. Another disadvantage is the large number of absolute contraindications.
List of antibiotics
If the inflammatory process has developed due to bacterial strains that, after entering the body, form betalactamase, the patient is prescribed inhibitor-protected penicillins. Antibiotics from this group are considered relatively safe, so some of them are allowed to be given to children.
Macrolides are prescribed for adults with pneumonia. These medicines are a good alternative to cephalosporins, which are often allergic. In the treatment of atypical pneumonia, a new generation is used. Prolonged bronchopneumonia is a good reason for first-line antibiotics .
Among modern tetracyclines, Doxycycline is distinguished; Cefepim and Cefotaxime are present in the list of the most effective cephalosporins. Macrolides quickly relieve inflammation located in the respiratory tract. Clarithromycin, Erythromycin, and Azithromycin are often prescribed to patients with this disease .
Amikacin and Gentamicin are considered aminoglycosides. When taking them, the patient should regularly check the kidneys. It is strictly forbidden to take antibiotics from the group of fluoroquinols to patients who are less than 18 years old. Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Pefloxacin can cause liver pathologies.
If an adult or child drinks antibiotics in full accordance with the recommendations of the attending physician and the manufacturer’s prescriptions, community-acquired pneumonia will be defeated within two weeks. Receiving drugs need to be started immediately after the appointment of therapy. For pneumonia of mixed etiology, several antibiotics are used. The same happens with a complicated course of the disease. The patient cannot independently change the dosage and the procedure for taking the medication. Mild pneumonia in adults is allowed to be treated at home. Patients who are at risk must be admitted to the hospital.
When treating pneumonia, antibiotics are allowed to be used only if the following rules are observed:
- Among the most effective antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs, there are those that include ibuprofen, paracetamol and nimesulide. They are most often sold in the form of tablets or capsules. The patient will have to give up medications containing acetylsalicylic acid.
- Antibiotics, sold in the form of solutions for intravenous and intramuscular injections, are used in a hospital. The injections should be done by a specialist.
- Preparations with detoxification action are recommended to be combined with mineral and vitamin complexes.
- In the presence of complications, the inclusion of infusion therapy will be required.
- If the patient’s condition worsens due to an allergic reaction, he is prescribed Aleron, Loratadin or Zodak.
- Physiotherapy procedures should be done only after elimination of hyperthermia and clinical manifestations of toxic damage.
Antibiotics are at the heart of the therapeutic regimen for pneumonia . Allocate drugs with a wide and narrow spectrum of action. The first is used if the causative agent of the pathology has not been identified. The duration of the course depends on the general condition of the patient, the type and stage of the disease. Treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics is an effective measure by which the malaise is quickly relieved and complications are prevented .