Aspirin is a medicine known to many from a very early age. It was with his help that our mothers and grandmothers treated various ailments, ranging from a cold and ending with pain in the joints. However, this drug is not as safe as it might seem at first glance. A side effect of its use is bronchial asthma of aspirin genesis. The course of this disease is extremely serious, and if not properly treated, complications can arise. That is why it is so important to be able to recognize the symptoms of the disease and ensure the prevention of undesirable consequences.
What is aspirin bronchial asthma?
Aspirin bronchial asthma – It is a chronic disease of the respiratory tract of an inflammatory nature, based on the body’s hypersensitivity to aspirin, as well as to other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. For the disease is characterized by the development of bronchospastic syndrome, nasal congestion and discharge from the nasal cavity. According to statistics, the disease is more often recorded in young women from 30 to 45 years. Intolerance to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is observed in 30% of patients with bronchial asthma.
The occurrence of the disease is due to individual hypersensitivity to aspirin and other similar drugs. Portability of many drugs is determined by the activity of the tool. Salicylates (acetylsalicylic acid), unsaturated fatty acids (ketoprofen, diclofenac), as well as enolic acids (for example, piroxicam) are considered to be highly active drugs. The severity of symptoms of bronchial asthma depends largely on the dosages used and the route of administration of the drug. It is also known that asthma attacks may be associated with the use of products that contain natural salicylates or artificial preservatives based on them. Some scientists suggest that there is a genetic predisposition to the development of the disease.
In contrast to the classical allergic process, bronchospasm in the aspirin variant of the disease is associated with impaired utilization of arachidonic acid. In this case, a large number of active substances – leukotrienes are formed, which stimulate the development of the inflammatory process in the mucous membrane, provoke bronchospasm and excessive production of bronchial mucus.
The main symptoms of asthma aspirin genesis
One of the first manifestations of the disease is rhinitis. It is accompanied by abundant mucous secretions from the nasal cavity, sneezing attacks, a decrease in the sharpness of smell and taste, the occurrence of headaches and unpleasant sensations in the projection of the nasal sinuses. Slowly develops polypous rhinosinusitis, which is characterized by the formation of polyps on the mucous membrane. Symptoms of bronchial asthma of aspirin genesis also include coughing, choking, reddening of the skin of the face and neck, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes, intense pain in the area of epigastrium, and stool disorders.
Quite a rare sign of the development of the disease is a malfunction of the endocrine and nervous systems. Some women note a change in the nature of the menstrual cycle, premature menopause and miscarriage. Every 6th patient has a thyroid gland abnormality.
If the symptoms of bronchial asthma are progressing, the likelihood of unwanted complications increases. Among them, the most dangerous asthmatic status: steady and serious condition, which is accompanied by almost complete cessation of breathing and requires immediate resuscitation. If aspirin asthma is combined with the atopic form of the disease, there is a risk of damage to other organs and systems (eczema, dermatitis or urticaria develops).
First of all, the patient should stop taking aspirin and similar drugs. Bronchial asthma in this case is treated with the use of inhaled glucocorticosteroids (budesonide, beclomethasone dipropionate), beta-2 long-acting agonists (salmeterol or formoterol). Anti-leukotriene preparations (zileuton, zafirlukast) can be prescribed as a means of additional therapy. Intranasal glucocorticoids (mometasone, alcedine) are used to treat rhinitis.
If, for health reasons, the patient cannot refuse aspirin, apply the method of desensitization. It is based on a gradual increase in dose. medication (from 10 to 650 mg per day), after which you can return to the usual dosages. This technique can reduce the severity of symptoms.
In the case when asthma is complicated by the development of polypous rhinosinusitis, surgical intervention is indicated. The operation is aimed at removing pathological formations from the nasal cavity: the most gentle access is usually used. Thus it is possible to restore normal nasal breathing.
Prevention of the development of the disease
The main prevention the ailment is to exclude or use only small doses of aspirin or any other anti-inflammatory drugs. It is not recommended to resort to their use without medical recommendations (especially in children). Also, in case of illness, doctors advise to revise the diet, excluding from the daily food products that may contain salicylates:
- sausages and sausages (sausages, wieners), ham and boiled ham;
- beer of both alcoholic and non-alcoholic type;
- any canned food and preserves;
- carbonated drinks and packaged juices;
- store sweets (chocolate, cakes and pies, marmalade, sweets, cookies, ice cream);
- some fruits (melons, plums, peaches, apples, oranges, grapefruit, lemon, prunes) and vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers and artichokes), as well as berries (cherries, currants, raspberries and blackberries).