Occupational bronchial asthma is a common pathological condition characterized by impaired respiratory function in the background of the developed obstruction. The basis of the occurrence of such a disease is the increased sensitivity of the body to substances with which it is necessary to contact by the nature of professional activity. The prognosis for this pathology is relatively favorable. A large percentage of people didn’t have new seizures after changing jobs.
According to various data, among all cases of bronchial asthma, the share of professional form accounts for from two to fifteen percent. The prevalence of this disease directly depends on the nature of the influencing professional factor. As an example, we can say that people working with animals face such a violation in six percent of cases. Among workers in contact with proteolytic enzymes, the frequency of occurrence of this pathological process reaches up to forty percent. At the same time among all the sick people are dominated by smokers.
If we consider such a disease in the structure of other occupational diseases, then we can say that it accounts for about twelve percent. An important point in the diagnosis is the absence of clinical manifestations characteristic of this pathology at the time of employment. It is worth noting that in the past few years, professional bronchial asthma began to occur much more frequently.
In the development of this pathological process, the leading role is given to the contact of the body with allergens in the workplace. Amid an allergen entering the respiratory tract, an inflammatory reaction develops in the bronchi and they become hyperreactive. In addition, it is impossible not to say about such factors that increase the likelihood of this pathology. These include physical exertion, stress, existing diseases of the respiratory tract, and so on.
Currently, it is believed that the development of occupational bronchial asthma can lead to more than three hundred different factors. Quite often, such a disease is encountered by people who come into contact with animals by the nature of their activities. In this case, wool, feathers, feed, and so on can act as allergens. An allergic reaction can form on grain and flour dust, wood dust, cotton fiber, and more. Often the painters and people involved in construction activities suffer from this violation. Chemical and pharmaceutical workers are also at risk. In fact, in almost any profession there may be a factor that can cause an allergic reaction.
Classification of occupational asthma
The classification of this disease includes its allergic, non-allergic and mixed variants. The development of an allergic variant is based on the launch of immune processes that lead to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The non-allergic variant implies a direct irritant effect of theprovoking factor on the bronchi, which leads to an active release of histamine. In the mixed version, both of the above described mechanisms take place.
In addition, occupational asthma is divided into intermittent and persistent forms. The intermittent form is characterized by moderate severity of clinical manifestations and the occurrence of seizures less than once per week. Persistent form is mild, moderate and severe. With a mild seizure, the seizures develop weekly, and with a moderate severity, they develop daily. Severe implies constant episodes of impaired respiratory function, including at night.
Symptoms for occupational bronchial asthma
In general, the symptoms in this pathological process are no different from bronchial asthma having a different etiology. In some cases, before the occurrence of an attack, peculiar precursors appear. These include coughing, discomfort and sore throat, disturbed nasal breathing, and so on.
Directly the respiratory function itself is impaired during contact with the allergen or a short time after it. A sick person indicates the appearance of shortness of breath, characterized by impaired exhalation. In an attempt to make his breathing easier, he occupies a forced position with his hands resting and his body bent forward. There are symptoms such as whistling when breathing, acceleration of heart contractions and blanching of the skin. After the attack is over, a small amount of clear, viscous sputum is noted.
In the event that the disease is mild, the presence of any symptoms between the attacks is not characteristic. With more severe course may occur moderate dyspnea during physical activity and episodes of mild unproductive cough.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease begins with the collection of complaints and anamnesis. It is necessary to find out at what moments there are attacks. It is mandatory to conduct peak flow measurement, spirometry, general and biochemical blood tests, as well as a study of the immune status. During remission, allergological tests are prescribed to identify the nature of the disease.
For the treatment of bronchial asthma, first of all, contact with the allergen should be excluded. Of the drugs used m-anticholinergics, beta-adrenergic antihistamines, and in severe cases – glucocorticosteroids. Between attacks, various physiotherapeutic procedures, physiotherapy exercises, and so on are shown.
Prevention of the development of the disease
For prophylaxis the occurrence of this pathological process should be cautious when choosing a place of work with a burdened allergological history. In addition, you should regularly undergo medical examination and consult a doctor when the first disturbing signs appear.