The pathological process in pneumonia can affect different parts of the lungs. Inflammation, localized at the root of the lung, is a severe and dangerous form of the disease. This is due to the difficulty of diagnosis due to the uncharacteristic location of the lesion. Basal pneumonia can develop as an independent disease due to the entry of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses into the body, or act as a complication of other ailments.
Features of symptoms
Symptoms of the disease are:
- dry cough, later turning into wet, with discharge of mucous secretions;
- chills, fever that can be difficult to bring down;
- heart palpitations;
- increased sweating;
- malaise, weakness;
- muscle pain;
- shortness of breath, wheezing in the chest;
- cyanosis is a condition in which the skin and mucous membranes acquire a bluish tint (in severe cases).
Symptoms of the disease can vary in intensity depending on the type of pathological process. With a tumor-like type, the ailment is sluggish, not accompanied by a strong cough and high fever. In general, the patient’s condition is satisfactory. The disease responds well to therapy. The inflammatory type of pneumonia is characterized by a protracted undulating course – periods of relief are replaced by exacerbations. Each subsequent coil worsens the patient’s condition more and more.
More often, the disease affects the right lung, since on this side the bronchus is shorter and wider, it is easier for the pathogen to penetrate and gain a foothold in it. In this case, pneumonia is considered right-sided. Left-sided is much less common, proceeds more difficult and is less treatable, since drainage of the left bronchus is complicated due to its anatomical features.
It can be more difficult to diagnose the disease in children than in adults. Many of them often get sick, and it is not always possible to track the moment when pneumonia joined. Newborns, infants and preschool children cannot describe their feelings, therefore, for any signs of illness, the baby should be shown to the doctor.
Causes of the disease
The cause of the disease in adults is more often streptococcus, staphylococcus and haemophilus influenzae. In young children, viruses often provoke the development of the inflammatory process. Mycoplasma infection is often the causative agent of pneumonia in adolescents and young people. Fungi are less likely to cause illness, more often when the human body is weakened due to existing serious diseases.
Infection can occur in a variety of ways. Pathogens can be transmitted by airborne droplets. When a sick person coughs or sneezes, the air around him is filled with harmful microorganisms. When inhaled, the pathogen enters the airways of a healthy person, and the inflammatory process starts. Domestic infection occurs when touching objects on which the pathogen remains, followed by the introduction of infection through the hands through the mouth or mucous membranes.
Provoking factors for the development of the disease:
- tobacco and alcohol abuse;
- poisoning with toxins;
- weakened immunity;
- undergoing chemotherapy;
- concomitant ailments – HIV, severe heart and kidney diseases, endocrine disorders;
- pathology of the airways;
- elderly age;
- chest trauma.
The symptoms of the disease are similar to those of many ailments, so you need to undergo a set of examinations necessary to diagnose and choose the right treatment regimen. The doctor will definitely prescribe an X-ray, but it is often not enough due to the uncharacteristic location of the inflammation focus, so the patient will need to pass blood and urine tests, microbiological examinations and undergo additional examinations if necessary.
Which doctor to contact
If the characteristic symptoms of the disease occur, you should consult a general practitioner who will prescribe the necessary studies. Based on the data obtained, a diagnosis is carried out, a specialist determines the severity of the disease and decides where the treatment will take place – at home or in a hospital. This is influenced by: the severity of symptoms, the presence of complications and disorders of respiratory function, the age of the patient and the existing concomitant ailments. When the patient is admitted to the hospital, he is treated by a pulmonologist – a doctor who specializes in diseases of the airways.
What tests need to be passed
An x-ray is prescribed to diagnose the disease, but its picture is very similar to that observed in malignant tumors or tuberculosis. To clarify the result, the following studies can be assigned:
- computed tomography, which allows you to get a detailed X-ray;
- clinical and biochemical blood tests;
- determination of ESR and C-reactive protein (excess of the norm indicates an inflammatory process);
- Mantoux test, showing the presence of the causative agent of tuberculosis;
- taking a sample of lung tissue for examination in order to exclude an oncological process;
- bronchoalveolar lavage , involving the introduction into the bronchi and removal of a special solution from them, followed by examination;
- determination of the presence of antibodies to pathogens by PCR and serological reactions;
- microbiological diagnostics: analysis and culture of sputum, smear from the pharynx for microflora (mainly in children), blood culture.
The disease requires complex therapy with the use of drugs aimed at eliminating the pathogen, relieving inflammation and relieving symptoms. Medicines are prescribed by a doctor based on the results of the studies carried out, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient. Well proven in the treatment of root pneumonia and methods of traditional medicine. For successful treatment of the disease, it is necessary to adhere to bed rest, high-quality, easily digestible food, containing many vitamins and minerals, and drinking enough water. With timely and adequate treatment, complete recovery occurs.
Antibiotic therapy is prescribed to destroy the germs that cause inflammation. Antibiotics such as Amoxicillin, Ceftriaxone , Levofloxacin , Amoxiclav , Sumamed are often used . To improve the discharge of mucus, expectorant and mucolytic agents (ACC, Bromhexin, Lazolvan ) are used. In difficult cases in a hospital, detoxification therapy is carried out , for which Ringer’s and glucose solutions , Stabizol , Gemodez and other agents are used. Bronchodilators ( Teotard , Salbutamol ) are used to expand the lumen of the bronchi and relieve spasms, which makes it easier for the patient to breathe. If necessary, vitamin therapy is prescribed.
It should be understood that traditional medicine is used only as an adjunct to the drug therapy of hilar pneumonia. For the treatment of the disease, medicinal herbs and plants are widely used – pine buds, sage, coltsfoot, oregano, licorice. A decoction of oats in water or milk helps well with an ailment; recipes based on onions, garlic and bee products are often used. Rosehip, Echinacea, Ginseng and Ginger increase immunity and have a tonic effect.
To reduce the risk of heart disease, the following recommendations should be followed:
- wash your hands with soap and water several times during the day;
- avoid public places during epidemics;
- regularly ventilate the premises at home and at work, carry out wet cleaning;
- avoid contact with infectious people;
- in the presence of chronic diseases, control their course, if necessary, timely conduct therapy;
- Healthy food;
- carry out vitamin prophylaxis ;
- avoid hypothermia;
- to be physically active;
- do breathing exercises;
- vaccinate against influenza.
Complications after root pneumonia
Basal pneumonia can lead to a number of pulmonary complications – respiratory failure, lung abscess, or tissue necrosis. A dangerous consequence of the disease is empyema (inflammation) of the pleura, when pus accumulates in the pleural region. In advanced cases, the disease can lead to blood poisoning and poisoning with toxins, which can be fatal. The proximity of the focus of inflammation with root pneumonia to the tissues of the heart often leads to damage to the myocardium and the inner lining of the organ. As a result of further penetration of the infection, meningitis may develop.
Basal pneumonia is an insidious disease that is difficult to diagnose. Because of this, treatment often begins late, as a result of which dangerous complications can arise . Therapy for the disease takes place under the supervision of a doctor either at home or in a hospital, depending on the patient’s condition.