Bronchial pneumonia is an inflammatory disease that affects bronchial branches . It can be the result of an infectious infection, colds with an unspecified etiology. In the first case, pathogenesis begins after the penetration of pathogens into the upper respiratory tract. In the second, pneumonia develops due to therapy that has not brought a positive effect. Complications occur if the lower segments of the lung are affected . Based on the modern classification, pneumonia is:
- acute and chronic;
- one-sided and two-sided;
- right-handed and left-handed.
Bronchopneumonia can develop in both adults and children. When prescribing a therapeutic regimen for a child, his weight and age must be taken into account. It should be understood that underage patients suffer from hypersensitivity to harmful compounds that enter the body through the skin pores and respiratory tract. Oxygen starvation, which occurs with bronchial pneumonia, negatively affects the work of internal organs.
When carrying out medical procedures in a child suffering from pneumonia, difficulties arise. Their appearance is due to the strong stretching of soft tissues. In young children, the angle between the glottis and the larynx becomes sharper. A narrow cricoid ring, a short trachea, and a reduced cricothyroid membrane are also noted . Infants, age less than 8 years old, intubation and laryngoscopy pneumonia carried out by a special technique.
Respiratory failure in babies develops faster than in adults. Ignoring the prerequisites for this condition can lead to disturbances in the work of the cardiovascular system. When combined with an accelerated metabolism, the obstruction of the airways is aggravated. The likelihood of developing an emergency is increased in patients suffering from neurogenic, hemorrhagic and obstructive shock.
Infection from an infectious person to a healthy person is transmitted by airborne droplets, contact and household routes. Bronchial pneumonia is often called focal pneumonia . With this type, small bronchi and parenchymal tissue that surrounds them are damaged. The disease develops due to the negative impact of the following reasons:
- the penetration of food into the respiratory tract;
- surgical intervention;
- mechanical injury;
- inhalation of harmful chemical compounds.
Even a healthy person can develop lung inflammation . There are patients who are at increased risk of serious complications, among them:
- HIV-infected persons;
- newborns and babies ;
- babies under 3 years old;
- elderly people.
The condition with pneumonia can be significantly complicated if there is a history of immunodeficiency, bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, diabetes mellitus, chronic pathologies of the respiratory system, circulatory disorders. If you feel unwell, you should immediately contact your doctor.
Bronchopulmonary pneumonia provokes the following symptoms:
- increased body temperature (up to 39 degrees);
- general malaise;
- chronic fatigue;
- loss of appetite;
- painful sensations in the muscles.
All these symptoms indicate that the body is fighting infection. The faster it spreads, the more intense the manifestation. With bronchial pneumonia, the patient suffers from a debilitating cough. Through it, the respiratory tract is cleared of the phlegm that has accumulated in them.
In the early stages of pneumonia, a dry, hacking cough occurs, after which it becomes moist. The separation of mucus containing pus sputum indicates a severe course of the disease. The patient’s state of health is greatly deteriorating due to respiratory failure. Difficulty breathing with pneumonia appears both during physical exertion and in a calm state.
Pain in the chest area may be pulling or stabbing. Discomfort occurs when inhaling and coughing. It is localized on the side where the affected organ is located, or on both, if bilateral pneumonia has developed . The child often lacks hyperthermia. In this case, pneumonia manifests itself as apathy, shortness of breath, lethargy, and excessive sweating.
To determine the exact cause of the ailment, the doctor interviews the patient. Also, at the initial stage of the diagnostic examination, auscultation and percussion of the lungs are performed. The information obtained in this way cannot be considered absolutely reliable.
With bronchial pneumonia, wheezing appears in the lungs . When tapping the affected segment, the doctor fixes a shortened sound. This method is not always effective. Auscultation gives a more reliable result. The diagnostic scheme is complemented by laboratory tests, radiography, bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the lungs.
The patient is x- rayed several times. The first procedure is carried out during the diagnosis. The subsequent ones are carried out to assess the effectiveness of the methods prescribed by the doctor. The patient is considered healthy if there are no lesions and signs of interstitial damage in the picture.
Which doctor will help
If signs of bronchial pneumonia appear , the patient should immediately consult a doctor. Diseases affecting the respiratory system are treated by a pulmonologist. It is to him that the therapist will refer a person who complains of the above symptoms.
To identify the causative agent that caused pneumonia, sputum microscopy is done. The patient is prescribed a referral for serological tests, OAC and OAM. Also, a biochemical blood test and bacterial culture are performed . Using standard procedures, the intensity of the inflammatory process that occurs with pneumonia is determined. Specific analyzes can reveal information about the amount of antibodies that can resist pathogens.
To achieve recovery from bronchial pneumonia, it is necessary to follow the therapeutic regimen prescribed by the attending physician. It includes:
- Drug therapy. The list of drugs prescribed for pneumonia necessarily includes antibiotics, mucolytics , anti-inflammatory, expectorant and antipyretic properties. Also use antihistamines , solutions for diffusion. The drugs must be taken correctly. Medications are prescribed based on the form of pneumonia. In a serious condition, the patient is given injections.
- Strict bed rest. Vigorous activity is contraindicated for the patient. The room where the patient lies should be regularly cleaned and ventilated. Sports can be resumed 6-7 weeks after the characteristic signs of pneumonia have been eliminated. Before that, you need to consult a doctor.
- Special diet. The patient’s diet includes foods containing proteins, fresh vegetables and fruits. Through them, they compensate for the lack of vitamins, minerals and amino acids. Changes will certainly affect the drinking regime. The amount of fluid you drink should be increased. Strong drinks will have to be abandoned. They are replaced with mineral water, herbal decoctions, weak tea.
- Physiotherapy procedures. They are prescribed to patients only in the absence of hyperthermia. The most effective methods include inhalation, warming up, therapeutic massage of the chest, and breathing exercises.
- Unconventional methods. They are used when undergoing a treatment course, during rehabilitation and prevention. Infusions and decoctions for pneumonia are prepared on the basis of medicinal herbs. The use of medicines made at home using traditional medicine prescriptions must be checked with the doctor.
Children are treated in a hospital. An adult patient is admitted to the hospital if the doctor diagnoses moderate to severe pneumonia . With croupous inflammation, the patient is transferred to the intensive care unit. At home, you can get rid of mild pneumonia, but even in this case, the patient’s treatment should be under the supervision of a specialist.
The prognosis for hospital and community-acquired pneumonia depends on the stage at which it was detected. The doctor selects the treatment , while he is guided by the data of the diagnostic examination and the individual characteristics of the patient. Patients under one year of age tolerate the disease worst of all . If you ignore the signs of pneumonia provoked by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci and Klebsiella, a lethal outcome is possible.
To prevent the development of bronchopneumonia in children and adults, you need to follow simple rules. The patient should:
- observe hygiene rules;
- lead a healthy lifestyle;
- undergo regular medical examinations;
- Healthy food;
In the autumn-winter period, one should not contact with patients suffering from pneumonia and other ailments. Prevention will help to avoid the appearance of pathologies of the respiratory system.
Bronchial pneumonia can cause obstruction and destruction of lung tissue. As a result of these processes, cavities are formed in the damaged segments in which pus accumulates. Lung tissue breakdown is often accompanied by edema. The list of possible complications includes:
- heart failure;
- septic shock.
Pneumonia is a dangerous disease in which you cannot self-medicate. Lung inflammation develops very quickly. In young children, the immune system is not formed, so they are more susceptible to colds than others. In this case, hospitalization is required. The patient must follow all the recommendations of the attending physician. Otherwise, he cannot avoid negative consequences and irreversible pathological changes.