In the genesis of bronchial asthma are chronic damage, deformity, spasm and inflammation bronchi, both large and smaller, which leads to a significant difficulty in breathing. Allergies can become provocateurs of pathology (contact with allergens-triggers), then we can talk about atopic bronchial asthma, as well as frequent respiratory infections, provoking an inflammatory process and bronchial hyperreactivity.
Bronchial asthma: provocative factors
Experts to date, consider bronchial asthma a chronic progressive pathology, which is based on the inflammation of the walls of the bronchi, affecting the mucous and submucosal layer, with the participation of cellular elements of the immune system.
The symptoms that characterized bronchial asthma, include attacks of frequent painful cough, especially at night, difficulty breathing with wheezing or whistling, shortness of breath and chest tightness, soreness or feeling of pressure. Another asthma attack can be triggered by respiratory viral infections, such as a cold or flu, exercise, sudden weather changes from heat to cold, exposure to tobacco smoke, severe air pollution, strong odors and the presence of chemical compounds in the air. Allergies play a significant role in the genesis of asthmatic attacks, but in this case we are talking about atopic attacks of asthma.
Chronic inflammation at the base
Bronchial asthma is considered one of the common chronic pathologies of the respiratory tract. Approximately one third of the patients are children under the age of 16-18 years. An attack of bronchial asthma can occur at any age, but usually chronic inflammation begins in adolescence, and even childhood, and lasts for almost the entire life.
Scientists can not name a specific reason that would provoke inflammation of the respiratory tract in all patients, and this fact makes it difficult to treat. It is believed that eliminating the causes of inflammation can most effectively suppress respiratory pathologies, but with regard to this disease, the causes are not always obvious. Not always asthma attacks provoke allergies, although the proportion of atopic forms of pathology account for a significant number of cases.
Over the past decades, scientists have developed new, more effective therapies. This allows asthmatics to independently control the activity of inflammation, thereby reducing the severity of symptoms and the risk of complications, which makes it possible to maintain a habitual way of life.
Respiratory tract anatomy and respiration
In bronchial asthma, the bronchi are mainly affected; these are tubes of different diameters that, when breathing, conduct air to the alveoli of the lungs. When breathing, atmospheric air, saturated with oxygen, enters the body through the nose, getting consistently into the pharynx, then through the larynx and the trachea into the main bronchi. They in turn consistently divided into smaller bronchioles, at the ends of which there are tiny air sacs, called alveoli. Gas exchange takes place inside these alveoli. The air sacs from the blood collect carbon dioxide, which is then exhausted in the opposite direction through the bronchi into the atmospheric air. In a healthy person, breathing is carried out reflexively and automatically, without any difficulty.
On the background of an asthmatic attack, breathing becomes very difficult, three main factors prevent the air from moving easily through the airways:
- The smooth muscle elements surrounding the bronchi, spasms, narrowing the lumen of the respiratory tract. This is called bronchospasm.
- The mucosa of the respiratory tract inflames and swells, swells.
- Cells lining the airways begin to produce more viscous mucus, which further narrows the bronchial lumen.
Bronchospasm, chronic inflammation and the formation of thick mucus provoke the development of symptoms such as shortness of breath, painful dry cough, difficult and noisy breathing, chest tightness, feeling of lack of air. A severe attack significantly disrupts the usual activities, does not allow to speak and walk, threatens with hospitalization because of the threat to life.
Causes of attacks: Is the infection dangerous?
The asthmatic patient’s respiratory tract is extremely sensitive to external stimuli that are safe for the average person. People react to numerous provocateurs (or triggers), although doctors cannot say for sure how the effects of triggers trigger asthma symptoms. Different patients react differently to the influence of external triggers (or internal), in addition, the reaction of the bronchi can vary from attack to attack. The condition of a simultaneous combination of triggers, for example, a viral infection against the background of seasonal allergy (with atopic asthma), makes it worse. One of the key points in the treatment of asthma attacks is dissociation with individual triggers.
The most common triggers that can provoke inflammation in asthma are considered to be the following:
- Acute infection (respiratory group of viruses or influenza, microbes);
- The effect of “childhood” infections;
- Microbial or bacterial infection, provoking the defeat of the paranasal sinuses, tonsils, middle ear;
- Physical activity, stress, especially often this happens in childhood;
- Climatic factors – very cold air, sharp fluctuations in temperature, atmospheric pressure with humidity;
- Irritation of the bronchus with tobacco smoke, industrial pollution of the air with industrial dust;
- Chemical irritants (gaseous, dust in the air, vapor);
- Stress, fear, prolonged excitement or strong emotions;
- Occupational hazards in the workplace, leading eventually to occupational asthma.
The role of allergies in the genesis of seizures
A special place in the genesis of asthma is given allergies. A rather large percentage of seizures (but not all) is of allergic origin. This can be either seasonal allergy (pollinosis) or year-round reaction forms. Contact with allergens maintains inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity. Most often, allergies are triggered by such triggers as dust mites living in a dwelling, pollen of a wind-pollinated group of plants, dander or saliva of domestic animals carried on wool. Often, asthma attacks provoke allergies to mold spores, insects, especially tar akans, and, rarely, some foods.