Urban air polluted by suspended particles, gases and pathogens is the main factor triggering the onset of asthma attacks . Today, compared with the 40s of the last century, the number of patients with asthma has increased by at least 7 times. Doctors attribute such a sharp increase to the deterioration of the environmental situation in megacities, and Moscow is no exception.
Mossanepidnadzor experts estimated that over the past 10 years the number of children with asthma has doubled, and pulmonologists explain this phenomenon … with progress in medicine. Modern methods for diagnosing asthma make it possible to find and treat a disease at the earliest stages, whereas earlier the disease was detected in the late stages – already with asthma attacks, which is 10-15% of the total number of asthmatics. In other words, there are far fewer hidden asthmatics in Moscow than 10 years ago. Nevertheless , an increase in the incidence rate directly related to environmental degradation is still observed.
The highest level of air pollution in Moscow is observed in the areas of Kapotnya, Lyublino and Maryino due to the Moscow oil refinery and the Kuryanovsky treatment facilities located in the city . In certain periods, when meteorological conditions contribute to the accumulation of harmful substances in the surface layer of the atmosphere, the concentration of impurities can increase sharply – smog occurs . Also, a high level of air pollution is observed near major highways. The content of benzpyrene , a powerful carcinogen that causes leukemia and congenital malformations, nitrogen dioxide , phenol and formaldehyde, is increased in the Moscow air . An important component of air pollution is also the content of fine particles. According to estimates by the World Health Organization, airborne microparticles account for almost 9% of deaths from lung cancer, 5% of deaths from cardiovascular pathologies and about 1% of deaths from infectious respiratory diseases.
Air pollution in Moscow leads to a constant increase in allergic and, as already mentioned, asthmatic diseases in children and high mortality among older people, especially during periods of summer smog. Over the past few years, the prevalence of asthma and asthmatic status in all population groups has increased by 30%. Bronchial asthma in children is an environmentally dependent disease, since a hereditary predisposition to it always develops under the influence of environmental factors. More than 300 million patients in the world and 900 thousand in Russia are official statistics on the incidence of bronchial asthma. At the same time, according to experts, the real number of patients with bronchial asthma is 5-6 times more.
Asthmatics first of all need clean air. It can be a hundred kilometers from Moscow, in the countryside. It is believed that in relation to allergens, mountain air is the cleanest, and children can rise no higher than 1,500 meters. It is not necessary to take a child, for example, to the Swiss Alps, there are places with a similar microclimate not far from the capital. The most environmentally friendly of the surrounding areas of Moscow on today is Zaoksky district of the Tula region, he on the right is considered a resort.
On the territory of the district and in a radius of 30 km around there is not a single industrial enterprise that could destroy the balance of a unique ecosystem. In one cubic centimeter of air has 2 700 negatively charged ions – level resorts Switzerland. In this case, you can drive from Moscow to Zaoksky district in just an hour. The nature of this area is unique: the river with its numerous tributaries and forest streams, pine forest, meadows are pleasing to the eye, and the hilly landscape creates a favorable microclimate, so the air in these places is clean.