Inflammation of the lungs has no age limit; it can occur in both adults and children. The development of the disease in newly born children is not excluded. Congenital pneumonia can develop in a baby’s body even when he is in the womb. For this reason, it is necessary to treat pregnancy with special attention and awe.
Inflammation of the lungs in a newborn
The main signs
The peculiarity of the disease is that the child may already be born with pneumonia. Pathology is accompanied by symptomatic signs immediately after the birth of a newborn. The disease occurs as a result of infection of the child’s body through the transfer of the virus from the mother’s body. The possibility of intensifying inflammation in the first hours after birth is not excluded. Depending on the method of acquisition, the disease is divided into viral and bacterial. When choosing the most effective method of treatment, one should take into account the form of the pathology and its duration.
After the infection has entered the body, the child’s condition may worsen. The first violation is subject to the respiratory system. The hallmarks of pneumonia include:
- pallor of the skin of the face;
- rashes on the body (occurs in rare cases and when the body is exposed to the rubella virus);
- weak cry;
- suppression of the baby’s reflexes due to damage to the central nervous system.
When assessing the child’s condition on the Apgar scale , the indicators correspond to values below normal. In some cases, the child needs resuscitation. Most often, the pathology is accompanied by shortness of breath. The detection of viral pneumonia is carried out by detecting cysts on the internal organs of the child. Ischemic disorders and enlargement of the liver are diagnosed.
The bacterial form is purulent. Development occurs within two days after the birth of a newborn. The child’s body temperature rises, anxiety appears, the baby refuses to breast, as a result of which the body weight decreases.
The cause of pneumonia is the active influence of bacteria of an infectious and viral nature. At the time of movement along the birth canal, the baby takes over the microflora from the mother’s side, while a large part of it is pathogenic. After entering the upper respiratory tract, bacteria are able to move on, disrupting the performance of internal organs. A similar process occurs in the first few hours of life, since the body of the newborn is still weak and gets used to the conditions of the external environment. Possible infection of the child through the mother’s placenta. In this case, the infection enters through the bloodstream.
An equally important factor in the onset of the disease is the congenital form of immunodeficiency. In such a situation, the child’s body does not have the ability to resist pathological microorganisms that come from the mother.
To identify the nature of the disease, a number of diagnostic measures are required. The main ones include:
- radiography – helps to establish the prevalence of foci of the disease and the nature of the swelling of the lung fields;
- general blood test – pathology is accompanied by a deviation from the norm in the number of leukocytes, thrombocytopenia is detected;
- biochemical blood test – a low oxygen content, the activity of liver enzymes and a change in the electrolyte composition are detected.
The conclusion is made after computed tomography or X-ray examination of the chest area.
Congenital pneumonia treatment
The severity of the clinical picture of the disease is influenced by the time period that has passed since the period of infection of the child’s body. The longer the period, the more serious complications in the future, which are more difficult to eliminate.
Since the child must be constantly under the supervision of a doctor, treatment should be carried out within the hospital. This makes it possible to provide immediate assistance to the patient in the event of respiratory arrest or cardiac arrest.
Taking medications plays a special role. The most effective are:
- diuretics – help to eliminate edema;
- antibiotics – are selected on an individual basis, in the absence of an opportunity to establish the nature of the pathogen, drugs of a wide spectrum of action are prescribed;
- vitamin complexes – strengthen the natural protective functions of the body;
- bifidobacteria – restore the intestinal microflora after taking antibiotics;
- inhalation – it is permissible to use it if the child was born on time.
The mother’s actions play an important role in treating an infant’s illness. She must adhere to medical advice. Pediatricians insist on frequent feeding. Swaddling should be neglected, since the method does not allow the newborn to breathe correctly during the exacerbated period of the disease. It is important to regularly change the position of the baby. After completion of therapy, the child is monitored by a pulmonologist for two weeks.
In order to learn how to prevent the occurrence of congenital pneumonia, you should have an idea of what causes it.
Before planning a pregnancy, a woman needs to consult a gynecologist and, if necessary, undergo an examination.
After the baby is born, it is necessary to protect him from contact with sick people and hypothermia. The mother must take good care of her hygiene.
During the period of bearing a child, a woman should be regularly observed by a gynecologist, take the necessary tests to identify congenital abnormalities in the fetus. The expectant mother should carefully contact others, pay attention to walking in the fresh air and eat right.
It is possible to cure pneumonia, but therapy must be carried out in a timely manner. At the initial stage, visible symptoms are eliminated, after which the activity of the inflammatory process gradually decreases and recovery occurs. Common complications of congenital pneumonia include:
- respiratory failure – occurs as a result of a decrease in the amount of oxygen present in the blood;
- heart failure;
- toxic type syndrome – characterized by impaired intestinal functionality, vomiting, poor health and an increase in body temperature.
Complications of pathology occur when the child is not provided with medical assistance on time. Against the background of pneumonia at birth, concomitant diseases appear, the development of the child is inhibited, toxic substances gradually accumulate in the blood, which negatively affect the work of neighboring internal organs. The worst consequence is death. If an advanced stage of the disease is detected, surgical intervention is not excluded.
Congenital pneumonia is a dangerous disease. With the correct and timely selected therapy, the prognosis is favorable. When dealing with pathology, it is important that proper care is provided not only by doctors, but also by the mother. Before giving birth, it is recommended to undergo an examination for the presence of diseases and infections in the body.