Asthma is a serious and dangerous disease in which the patient requires both basic and symptomatic drug therapy. Asthma inhalers are used to relieve an attack, and they are also used for basic treatment. Inhalation of healing vapors as a method of stopping an asthmatic attack has been used since ancient times. Modern inhalers are easy to use, effective and make the life of a person suffering from this disease much easier.
Indications for inhalation
The course of asthma is characterized by periodic attacks of asthma of varying degrees of intensity, caused by bronchospasm and airway edema. If an attack occurs, an asthmatic person needs urgent help, since the signs of suffocation in its absence increase, and respiratory failure develops.
An attack is characterized by the following symptoms:
- expiratory dyspnea;
- cough with difficult sputum discharge;
- forced body position, often sitting;
- the skin turns pale, covered with sweat;
- wheezing and whistling are heard.
If breathing is difficult, the patient needs immediate attention. Sometimes people have symptoms that predict an attack: sore throat, runny nose, unproductive cough, chest tightness. In such cases, you can use an inhaler to prevent severe choking. In the absence of timely and effective assistance, difficulty breathing can lead to serious consequences and even death.
Medicines used by inhalation for asthma are not indicated for all patients. Contraindications to their use are:
- hypertonic disease;
- pathology of the heart and blood vessels;
- disorders of the functioning of the hematopoietic system;
- recently suffered a heart attack;
- inflammatory processes in the oropharynx, lips;
- intolerance or high sensitivity to the active ingredients of the drug.
The procedure should not be carried out earlier than 2 hours after eating, physical activity. After inhalation, it is necessary to exclude inhalation of tobacco smoke (even passive).
In pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, as well as if it is necessary to use an inhaler for the treatment of young children, drugs are prescribed exclusively by a doctor, taking into account all possible contraindications and restrictions.
In the period between attacks, an asthma patient requires treatment aimed at eliminating pathogenetic factors of the disease and reducing the frequency of attacks. The latter are considered extremely dangerous, critical conditions when the patient needs urgent help. There is no time to wait for a pill or injection to act on the respiratory system, while using an inhaler you can quickly relieve a spasm from the bronchi. Means for inhalation penetrate precisely into the focus of pathology, providing a quick effect.
Types of inhalers
Inhalers for bronchial asthma are used both for basic therapy and for quick relief of an attack. They differ in size, method of drug delivery, and the type of drug used.
Inhalers differ in the type of medication. All anti-asthma drugs are divided into two types: for stopping an attack and for the main treatment, preventing new attacks.
Supportive therapy is carried out using:
- inhaled glucocorticosteroids (ICS);
- cromones ;
- combined preparations (the composition includes ICS and beta-2-adrenergic agonists).
To stop an attack, beta-2-adrenomimetics or drugs of the xanthine group are used. To deliver the drug to the smallest bronchi, which are most often affected by asthma, it is necessary to create an aerosol with a certain dispersion. For this purpose, devices are used that produce fine particles of the drug, which are called nebulizers . The most common are compressor and ultrasonic devices.
Compressor rooms are large and suitable only for stationary use, in addition, due to the presence of a compressor, they create a lot of noise. However, with their help, drugs can be administered in the form of suspensions, and they are cheaper. Most of the models of ultrasound devices have a minimal size, they can be carried with you. Mobile inhalers come in powder or spray form.
Benefits of a pocket inhaler
Pocket inhalers are produced in a form that is convenient for constant carrying with you: in the form of small balloons containing the medicine. Their advantage is that they are very easy to use, with a simple press, the particles of the drug are sprayed directly into the throat and penetrate the bronchi. Even with an attack, a person, be it an adult or a child, can sprinkle on his own from a spray can and stop the manifestations of the disease.
You need to use a pocket inhaler, step by step following a specific algorithm:
- you need to make sure that the drug is present in the device;
- if necessary, place a capsule with a medicine in the body of the device before use;
- remove the protective cover from the mouthpiece;
- place the inhaler correctly, as required by the instructions for use;
- if necessary, pierce the capsule with the medicine;
- press the button on the device and at the same time inhale the medicinal vapors deeply through the mouth;
- wait a while and then exhale slowly through the nose.
The mainstay of therapy for asthma today is considered to be hormonal drugs – ICS. They differ in chemical structure and help well to stop the inflammatory process in the bronchi. The list of drugs in this group includes funds with the following names:
- Beclomethasone ;
- Flixotide ;
- Bekotide ;
- Ingacort ;
- Becklojet ;
- Beklazon Eco ;
- Budenite ;
- Pulmicort .
These drugs are available in various forms (suspensions, nebulizer solutions , powders).
Cromones are less effective than ICS, their main effect is to eliminate allergic manifestations, they reduce inflammation from the bronchi worse. The list of cromones includes drugs under the trade names Tayled Mint and Intal . Today they are prescribed less and less, since ICS are more convenient to use and have more pronounced therapeutic properties in asthma.
The following drugs are intended to quickly suppress an attack:
- Salbutamol ;
- Astalin ;
- Ventolin ;
- Berotek ;
- Salamol ;
- Bricanil .
These are the most effective bronchodilators in the group of short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonists. Most often, such drugs are used precisely by inhalation. When administered in this way, they quickly affect the manifestations of the disease, even at low doses, while the likelihood of side effects is minimal. Inhalation with drugs of this group provides protection against bronchial spasm that occurs during physical exertion, for example, when running.
Combination drugs are used to increase the effectiveness of treatment. Good remedies in this group are:
- Symbicort Turbuhaler ;
- Foster ;
- Duoresp Spiromax ;
- Ipramol Steri- Neb;
- Berodual ;
- Seretide ;
- Foradil Combi .
Safety rules for the asthma patient
An asthmatic attack can be triggered by: tobacco smoke, dusty air, excessive emotional stress or physical exertion, hypothermia and other factors. The influence of such provoking factors should be avoided if possible. In addition, a person with such a disease needs to have medicine with them at all times to relieve symptoms. Leaving home, you need to check the presence of an inhaler. You also need to know exactly the name of the drug used in order to immediately purchase an inhaler from a pharmacy if necessary.
Inhalation should not be carried out too often. If the drug used does not stop the seizures or they recur, you should consult with your doctor: it may be necessary to replace the drug or its regimen.
Before using the inhaler, you should carefully read the instructions. After using some drugs, you should always rinse your mouth.
Inhalers are very effective in relieving asthma attacks; the correct use of such drugs makes the life of an asthma patient easier.