Bronchial asthma inevitably leaves its mark on a person’s life, making its own adjustments to it. At the same time, it is almost impossible to fully get rid of its negative influence. Statistical studies of recent years show that the number of patients with bronchial asthma is increasing every year.
Such dynamics only underlines the importance of this problem and its seriousness for the world community. Despite all the features of the disease, the prognosis for bronchial asthma is quite favorable.
However, to achieve a positive effect of treatment, a complete revision of the person’s lifestyle is required.
Bronchial asthma belongs to the category of chronic inflammatory diseases. It has a non-infectious nature and in most cases is associated with the characteristics of a particular organism or the professional activity of a person.
Primary manifestations, like all subsequent exacerbations, are a consequence of the body’s immune response to any effect. At the same time, the irritant itself does not always harm the body.
The dominant role is played by the fact of influence, which activates the immune system, stimulates the production of antibodies and leads to the formation of foci of inflammation in the bronchi.
Forms of bronchial asthma and severity
The appearance of bronchial asthma may be preceded by the influence of various factors, which, together with the individual characteristics of the human body, lead to the development of the disease.
A large number of causes and variants of the course of the disease significantly complicates its diagnosis. Based on this, a special classification has been introduced in medical practice that characterizes bronchial asthma by:
- the severity of the condition.
It is these two parameters that make it possible to characterize the disease. Such detailing makes it possible to diagnose the most accurately and determine the main causes of the development of the disease. Based on this, there are the following forms of bronchial asthma:
In most cases, the disease refers to an allergic form and is a consequence of the reaction of the body’s immune system to a certain type of irritant.
Contact with an allergen stimulates the inflammatory process, causing swelling of the mucous membrane, bronchospasm and leading to instantaneous difficulty in inhaling and exhaling.
The development of a non-allergic form occurs without the attachment of an immune response and is not a consequence of direct contact with an irritant. The development of mixed asthma is based on the combined effects of external and internal factors.
However, unspecified asthma is not associated with any of the above options.
According to the severity of asthma symptoms, the disease is classified as follows:
- episodic ( intermittent );
- persistent lung;
- medium persistent ;
- persistent severe.
Such a structure allows the most complete classification of the disease, its course and impact on human life.
At the same time, the correctness of the diagnosis plays a key role in prescribing further treatment and predicting the course of the disease in general.
Features of the course and treatment of the disease
Bronchial asthma has a significant negative impact on human life. Depending on the form and severity of the disease, the intensity of the symptoms also varies.
Asthmatic attacks have a different frequency and affect the body in different directions. As a rule, attacks of bronchial asthma are periodic, the course of the disease is characterized by an alternation of exacerbations and remissions.
The duration of each of these periods also plays an important role in the final diagnosis.
The episodic form of the disease is characterized by rare exacerbations that are significantly shorter than periods of no symptoms.
Moreover, the number of negative manifestations is small, as is their intensity. A more severe course of the disease involves an expansion of the list of symptoms, which may be as follows:
- wheezing in the chest;
- difficulty breathing;
- sputum separation;
- asthma attacks.
Each of these manifestations can significantly affect the quality of human life. However, regardless of the severity of the attack (unless it ended up completely blocking the lumen of the bronchi and stopping breathing), the body is restored and resumes its work.
The main feature of the treatment of bronchial asthma is not overcoming its consequences, but a decrease in the intensity of manifestations up to their complete disappearance. Based on this, therapy is aimed solely at reducing the duration and frequency of exacerbation periods.
To achieve this effect, a fairly wide range of drugs is used, the action of which is aimed at relieving and preventing bronchospasm. In particular, inhaled glucocorticosteroids are used to relieve seizures .
Prognosis for bronchial asthma
Asthma is a chronic disease that requires increased attention from the patient himself, since no medication can protect against its negative manifestations.
The use of drugs makes it possible to reduce the frequency and intensity of exacerbations, but not completely cure. Therefore, treatment should be carried out not only under the supervision of a doctor, but also be based on a complete revision of the patient’s lifestyle.
In case of bronchial asthma in adults, forecasts are made not only on the basis of examination results and the form of the disease. The frequency and duration of periods of exacerbations and remissions, as well as the body’s response to drug treatment and the effectiveness of preventive measures, are taken into account.
In most cases, in the treatment of severe forms of the disease, the prognosis is disappointing. In this case, the primary role is played by the patient’s age, since the older he is, the worse his body responds to the therapy.
Due to age-related changes in the body and a decrease in the rate of metabolic reactions, it becomes more difficult to stop asthma attacks.
In the treatment of middle-aged people who have been diagnosed with the intermittent stage, the prognosis is positive. This takes into account the patient’s condition prior to treatment, which serves as a starting point for a general analysis of the disease.
In the future, research is expanding due to other methods of diagnosing asthma, which allows you to get a complete picture of the disease and make the most accurate prognosis of its treatment.
The prognosis of bronchial asthma in children, regardless of age and severity, is more favorable than in adults.
The child’s immunity is not fully formed, which makes his body more plastic in relation to any chronic diseases. Thanks to this feature, the body of children recovers much faster after suffering an attack. It also responds better to treatment and preventive measures.
The course of the disease in adolescence requires special attention, since it is during this period of time that most patients experience a positive shift towards recovery. Thanks to the formation of the immune system and hormonal changes, the child’s body is able to completely overcome asthma.
Important! Treatment of asthma in adolescence requires constant monitoring by a doctor who will record changes and adjust therapy based on them.
Prevention of bronchial asthma
Treatment of the disease cannot be complete without rehabilitation measures. Prevention is a fundamental part of disease control, since it not only teaches a person the rules of behavior during an attack, but also helps to prevent it.
Neutralization of provoking factors, exclusion of contact with allergens and irritants brings a positive effect.
Preventive measures in conjunction with the use of inhaled glucocorticosteroids are the basis of treatment and can change the life of a patient with bronchial asthma for the better.