In the 60s of the last century, scientists developed a chemical compound that positively affects the smooth muscles of the upper respiratory tract, changes the level of potassium in the blood, and relaxes the muscles of the uterus during pregnancy. Its name is salbutamol. Today it is the main drug in the international classification, designed to relieve an attack of shortness of breath and relieve unpleasant symptoms in diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
Indications for use
In medicine, Salbutamol is known as a drug that can prevent and stop bronchospasm. Reduces the symptoms of choking in a short period of time. It is recommended to prescribe for the following diseases:
- bronchial asthma of any origin;
- Chronical bronchitis;
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
- contractions of the uterus with the threat of premature birth.
Salbutamol is on the list of drugs for urgent medical care.
Contraindications to admission
There are the following contraindications for taking the drug:
Coronary heart disease
- individual intolerance to the components of the drug or hypersensitivity;
- lactation period;
- contraindicated in pregnant women as a bronchodilator;
- ischemic heart disease, myocarditis, cardiac arrhythmias, tachyarrhythmia;
- children under 2 years of age;
- renal and / or hepatic impairment.
The drug should be used with extreme caution in arterial hypertension, hyperthyroidism.
The active substance – Salbutamol, belongs to the group of beta-adrenergic agonists. It dissolves well in water. It is difficult to dissolve in ethanol, ether. Excipients – ethanol, hydrofluoroalkane.
Belongs to the group of bronchodilators. It has an effect on special receptors that are localized in the bronchi and blood vessels. Able to increase overall lung capacity. The effect of using Salbutamol lasts for a long period of time (about 6 hours). Relaxes the uterus. Stops premature labor. Does not affect the level of blood pressure in the vessels. Causes expansion of some large arteries. When inhaled, 5 of the substance is in the small bronchi, the remaining amount is deposited in the upper respiratory tract. It is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The highest plasma concentration is reached after 3 hours. Half-excreted within 7 hours. Able to penetrate the placenta.
Salbutamol is not a hormonal drug. The difference from drugs with hormones is that it does not relieve inflammation and does not treat asthmatic and bronchial coughs. Acts symptomatically, rapidly relaxing the muscles of the bronchi.
The drug is available in the following forms:
- Pills. They have a film casing. Available in dosages of 2 and 4 mg of the active substance.
- Syrup. 5 ml contains 2 mg of salbutamol.
- Aerosol. 1 dose contains 0.1 mg of active ingredient. Produced in special cylinders with dispensers.
- Solution for inhalation and injection. 1 ml contains 1.25 mg of salbutamol. Often packaged in 2 ml ampoules.
- Powder for inhalation. One dose contains 200 or 400 mcg of the active substance. Available in special discs. White powder, odorless.
Producers of the drug: pharmaceutical companies Binnopharm, Teva, Altayvitamins. These brands have been producing medicines for many years and have proven themselves on the positive side.
The analogs are Salbuvent, Astalin, Ventolin, Ekovent, Aloprol. These drugs can completely replace Salbutamol. When choosing between the original drug and similar in composition, it is optimal to be guided by individual preferences and doctor’s recommendations. As a rule, similar substitutes for Salbutamol have a high positive effect.
Instructions for use
The dosage prescribed by the doctor depends on the gender, age, condition of the patient’s body. It is necessary to check the expiration date on the packaging, carefully study the annotation and observe the storage conditions. The method of administration depends on the form of the drug. Young children are prescribed Salbutamol on an individual basis.
At the age of 6 to 12 years, the volume of the prescribed agent should be no more than half the dose for an adult.
The tablets are taken orally with the threat of premature birth in the II and III trimesters of pregnancy. Salbutamol relaxes the smooth muscles of the uterus, but at the same time carries multiple organ risks for the intrauterine development of the fetus. This circumstance must be taken into account when appointing.
Syrup and Salbutamol tablets
A good effect is achieved when the syrup is used in childhood. The doctor prescribes the dosage for each child; it is dangerous to self-medicate. The regimen for taking Salbutamol in the form of a syrup is calculated depending on the year of birth, gender, age and weight of the patient.
Correct use of an aerosol involves a number of sequential steps:
- Shake the can.
- Exhale deeply, and, fixing the nozzle vertically, insert it into the oral cavity.
- Make a click. At the same time, take a deep breath.
- Hold your breath and remove the nozzle from your mouth.
The maximum positive effect can be achieved within 5 minutes. Apply no more than 8 times a day. If relief still does not come, it is permissible to make an additional injection. Further, the drug is not used for 4-6 hours. Children under 4 years of age are inhaled with a spray through a spacer – a small container with two valves, at one end of which there is a mouth for breathing, and at the other – an opening for an inhaler.
To perform inhalations with Salbutamol solution, a nebulizer is used. The mechanism of action of this device is simple: it converts a solution or dissolved powder into an aerosol. At home, every adult can carry out such procedures on their own.
There are the following stages of inhalation through a nebulizer:
Inhalation through a nebulizer
- Before inhalation, you need to check the health of the device. Remove all attachments and assess their cleanliness. If necessary, wash with soapy water and dry with a towel.
- Open the ampoule with the medicine. Place it in a special container.
- Connect the container to the inhalation mask.
- Connect the nebulizer compressor with the solution container using a tube.
- Turn on the nebulizer button.
- After the procedure, rinse and dry all parts of the device.
Do not mix Salbutamol with other drugs. Dilution with saline or distilled water is allowed. An increase in the dose of the drug, a change in the treatment regimen should be carried out under the supervision of the attending physician.
Salbutamol is popular among athletes as a bronchial dilator. They use the drug for marathon races and long, exhausting workouts. But frequent use is addictive, therefore, doctors do not recommend inhalation while playing sports for healthy people.
Interaction with alcohol
Alcohol releases additional portions of adrenaline into the bloodstream. In this regard, its combination with Salbutamol leads to a sharp increase in blood pressure. And increased urination shortens the duration of the drug. You should refrain from drinking alcohol for 3-4 hours after using the drug.
Compatibility with other drugs
It is necessary to take into account the effect of Salbutamol on the pharmacology of other drugs when used simultaneously. Only a doctor prescribes the drug, self-medication can lead to negative consequences.
When used correctly, the drug does not cause negative reactions. The consequences of exceeding the dose are manifested in an increase in the level of general fatigue, the occurrence of urticaria.
In case of an overdose, the following clinical manifestations are possible:
- tremors in the limbs;
- pain in the temples;
- nausea, vomiting;
- retention of urine;
- excessive sweating;
- a state of panic;
In the presence of the above signs, symptomatic treatment is performed. In extremely rare cases, an overdose of Salbutamol leads to uncontrolled bronchospasm. This condition is dangerous. If you do not provide assistance in time, death is possible.
Salbutamol is able to quickly and effectively cope with asthma attacks. Its use makes life easier for people suffering from respiratory diseases. However, you must strictly follow the instructions and adhere to the recommendations prescribed by the attending physician.