What is the treatment of bronchial asthma?

The attending physician, based on the clinical picture and the results of laboratory and instrumental methods of research, determines the severity of the disease, selects therapy. The task of treating bronchial asthma is a set of measures aimed at reducing inflammation in the bronchi and preventing the occurrence of exacerbations. Drug therapy is carried out under medical supervision and is very important to maintain control of the disease. With proper treatment and strict adherence to doses of drugs and the duration of the prescribed therapy, children can lead an active lifestyle, engage in studies and sports.

Pharmacological agents are divided into basic (anti-inflammatory) “controlling” therapy and emergency care.

Short-acting bronchodilator drugs

Drugs that expand the bronchi in the form of aerosols or inhalers – this is so-called. first aid drugs. They allow you to remove the attack of breathlessness, improve air permeability through the respiratory tract, but do not affect allergic inflammation. Frequent use of these drugs (usually 1-2 times a week) indicates a lack of control over asthma and the need to consult a doctor. In no case can not use these drugs uncontrollably!

An overdose of bronchodilators is extremely dangerous to the health and life of children.

Preparations for basic (maintenance) therapy

These drugs are recommended for long-term regular asthma therapy. Their goal is to reduce allergic inflammation in the bronchi. Properly selected drug allows you to control the symptoms of bronchial asthma and allows a child with asthma to lead a full life along with their peers. Such drugs include inhaled glucocorticosteroids (IGCS), anti – leukotriene drugs, combination drugs containing IHCS, and long-acting bronchodilator drugs. It is important to use these drugs for a long time and every day, following the advice of your doctor.

Inhaled glucocorticosteroids (IGCC)

They are the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs for controlling asthma in children of any age. They reduce both acute and chronic inflammation, which is accompanied by a decrease in the frequency and severity of exacerbations of asthma, normalizes pulmonary function and prevents irreversible changes in the airways. It is important daily and long-term use of these drugs in accordance with the recommendations of the doctor.

Modern ICS, acting directly in the lungs, have minimal systemic effects on the child’s body and, as a rule, are well tolerated. At present, there are ICS allowed for use even for children from 6 months of age, pregnant and lactating women4. At the same time, uncontrolled bronchial asthma slows the development of the child and reduces the final growth.

IGCCs can be administered either through aerosol or powder inhalers, or through nebulizers and spacers. Nebulizer therapy is especially effective in young children, as well as in children of any age during the period of exacerbation of the disease.

The most common types of nebulizers currently available are:



furniture, mesh nebulizers.

For inhalations of inhaled corticosteroids, ultrasonic nebulizers are not used, since they destroy the preparation.

Compressor is the most common and affordable type of nebulizer. For children, special nebulizers have been developed taking into account the parameters suitable for inhalation during childhood.

The volume of fluid recommended for spraying is 2–5 ml in most nebulizers. In necessary cases, to achieve it, a physiological solution must be added to the drug. Water should not be used for this purpose, since a hypotonic solution can provoke bronchospasm.

Membrane, mesh nebulizers are compact, noiseless at work. This nebulizer is also effective with a small volume of the drug (from 0.5 ml), which does not require dilution of the drug. Inhalations can be carried out at any angle of inclination, including in the prone position, in a dream.

When operating nebulizers, you need to remember some rules:

Never leave a nebulizer containing medicine attached to a compressor.

Pour the rest of the medicine after each procedure.

If there is moisture in the connecting tube, turn on the compressor for a few minutes to remove condensate.

Disinfection at home is carried out at least 1 time per week, according to the instructions to the nebulizer.

After each use, disassemble all parts of the nebulizer, rinse it in hot soapy water and rinse thoroughly in running hot water.

Dry the disassembled parts of the nebulizer.

event_note March 16, 2019

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